Table 2

Adenoma OR* (95% CI) by tertile of meat and HAA intakes and NAT2 and CYP1A2 activities among men

T1 (low)T2T3 (high)ptrend Value
N ORNOR (95% CI)NOR (95% CI)
Poultry (g/day)209/2491.00176/2610.85 (0.64 to 1.13)214/2900.89 (0.67 to 1.18)0.56
Fish (g/day)182/2461.00188/2491.03 (0.77 to 1.37)229/3051.05 (0.78 to 1.41)0.74
Red meat excluding processed meat (g/day)138/2181.00198/2611.02 (0.75 to 1.41)263/3211.00 (0.74 to 1.37)0.97
Processed meat (g/day)125/2231.00198/2521.27 (0.93 to 1.74)276/3251.27 (0.94 to 1.72)0.23
High-temperature meats (g/day)133/2021.00179/2680.84 (0.62 to 1.15)287/3301.03 (0.76 to 1.41)0.46
Pan-fried red meat149/2471.00215/2491.29 (0.95 to 1.76)235/3040.99 (0.72 to 1.36)0.32
Broiled red meat334/4061.00115/1790.78 (0.58 to 1.04)150/2150.83 (0.63 to 1.09)0.23
BBQ/grilled red meat172/2461.00167/2350.89 (0.66 to 1.20)260/3190.89 (0.67 to 1.20)0.59
MeIQx (ng/day)159/2421.00216/2750.95 (0.70 to 1.29)224/2830.91 (0.66 to 1.25)0.57
PhIP (ng/day) 154/2401.00200/2850.97 (0.72 to 1.31)245/2751.10 (0.81 to 1.48)0.41
Total HAA (ng/day)160/2431.00198/2800.93 (0.69 to 1.27)241/2771.01 (0.74 to 1.38)0.78
Pack-years207/3641.00149/1941.32 (0.99 to 1.76)243/2421.55 (1.00 to 2.40)0.09
NAT2 activity134/1871.00129/1790.93 (0.66 to 1.32)135/1731.18 (0.81 to 1.70)0.40
CYP1A2 activity115/1491.00116/1790.79 (0.56 to 1.13)163/2041.00 (0.71 to 1.40)0.83
  • * Estimated by conditional logistic regression, adjusting for family history of colorectal cancer, body mass index 5 years ago, energy-adjusted dietary fibre, energy-adjusted total intakes (foods and supplements) of calcium and folate, pack-years of smoking and alcohol intake. Cases and controls were matched for sex, age (within 5-year age groups), race/ethnicity (Japanese, Caucasian or Hawaiian), initial examination modality (flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy) and clinic and date of screening (within 6 months). Unconditional logistic regression (adjusted for the same variables plus the matching factors) was used for NAT2 and CYP1A2 activities due to the fact that some subjects refused the caffeine test.

  • Number of cases/number of controls.

  • Energy-adjusted by the method of residuals.

  • BBQ, barbeque; CYP1A2, cytochrome P450 1A2; Di-MeIQx, 2-amino-3,4,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; HAA, heterocyclic amine; MeIQx, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; NAT2, N-acetyltransferase-2; PhIP, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine.