Table 2

Endoscopic disease activity indices for ulcerative colitis (UC)

Endoscopic scoreStrengthsWeaknesses
Mayo score71 4-point scale with the parameters stool frequency, rectal bleeding, endoscopy and physician's global assessment, easy to use even in daily routine. Endoscopic subscore provided (0–3)Definition of mucosal healing not validated
Truelove and Witts score72 Possibility to stratify patients by their disease severityNo detailed endoscopic analysis, based on the presence of blood in stool rather than the presence of ulcers
Baron score73 4-point scale, easy to use in daily practiceLacks assessment of ulcerations, no validation of definition of mucosal healing
Modified Baron score74 5-point scale, easy to use in daily practiceNo validation of definition of mucosal healing
Sutherland index75 (ulcerative colitis disease activity index) (modified ulcerative colitis disease activity index)4-point scale, easy to use in daily practiceNo validation of definition of mucosal healing
Powell–Tuck index76 (St Mark's index)Mainly a clinical measure for stratification of patients20-point index with two additional points for a sigmoidoscopy component. Mainly based on clinical parameters rather than endoscopic assessment
Rachmilewitz index–endoscopic (clinical activity index; CAI)77 12-point index with four components (granulation, vulnerability, vascular pattern, mucosal damage)Potential underestimation of activity, as even scores in the presence of ulcers may result in the assessment ‘inactive disease’
UCEIS78 Only validated endoscopic index for UC, accounting for 94% of variance between endoscopists for the overall assessment of severity. Simple scale based on three descriptors, each with 3–4 levelsResponsiveness and clinical relevance need further testing, not used in clinical trials so far