Table 3

Adenoma OR* (95% CI) by tertile of meat and HAA intakes and NAT2 and CYP1A2 activities among women

T1 (low)T2T3 (high)ptrend Value
N ORNOR (95% CIs)NOR (95% CIs)
Poultry (g/day)122/1721.00130/1621.16 (0.82 to 1.65)113/1321.23 (0.84 to 1.81)0.35
Fish (g/day)153/1761.00132/1740.91 (0.66 to 1.26)80/1160.82 (0.56 to 1.21)0.32
Red meat excluding processed meat (g/day)148/2041.00144/1611.14 (0.80 to 1.61)73/1010.89 (0.58 to 1.37)0.63
Processed meat (g/day)151/1981.00141/1710.99 (0.69 to 1.41)73/970.76 (0.49 to 1.17)0.38
High-temperature meats (g/day)155/2201.00129/1551.06 (0.76 to 1.50)81/911.06 (0.69 to 1.63)0.79
Pan-fried red meat143/1811.00123/1690.79 (0.55 to 1.12)99/1160.80 (0.51 to 1.24)0.43
Broiled red meat236/2971.0086/1021.03 (0.72 to 1.46)43/670.76 (0.48 to 1.19)0.25
BBQ/grilled red meat140/1771.00142/1830.82 (0.59 to 1.14)83/1060.72 (0.47 to 1.11)0.18
MeIQx (ng/day)129/1791.00109/1481.05 (0.73 to 1.51)127/1391.15 (0.76 to 1.74)0.50
PhIP (ng/day) 115/1811.00118/1391.89 (0.96 to 1.99)132/1461.31 (0.90 to 1.90)0.26
Total HAA (ng/day)126/1791.00107/1421.10 (0.76 to 1.58)132/1451.17 (0.79 to 1.71)0.46
Pack-years188/2881.0090/1131.36 (0.93 to 1.98)87/653.07 (1.44 to 6.55)<0.01
NAT2 activity60/891.0080/991.24 (0.77 to 2.00)83/1041.52 (0.92 to 2.50)0.10
CYP1A2 activity66/1241.0083/961.58 (1.02 to 2.43)59/691.61 (1.00 to 2.60)0.05
  • * Estimated by conditional logistic regression, adjusting for family history of colorectal cancer, body mass index 5 years ago, energy-adjusted dietary fibre, energy-adjusted total intakes (foods and supplements) of calcium and folate, pack-years of smoking and alcohol intake. Cases and controls were matched on sex, age (within 5-year age groups), race/ethnicity (Japanese, Caucasian or Hawaiian), initial examination modality (flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy) and clinic and date of screening (within 6 months). Unconditional logistic regression (adjusted for the same variables plus the matching factors) was used for NAT2 and CYP1A2 activities due to the fact that some subjects refused the caffeine test.

  • Number of cases/number of controls.

  • Energy-adjusted by the method of residuals.

  • BBQ, barbeque; CYP1A2, cytochrome P450 1A2; Di-MeIQx, 2-amino-3,4,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; HAA, heterocyclic amine; MeIQx, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; NAT2, N-acetyltransferase-2; PhIP, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine.