Table 2

Incidence rate ratios (IRRs, 95% CI) for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) among patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) more than 1 year after IBD diagnosis compared with individuals without IBD in Denmark 1997–2009

Inflammatory bowel diseaseCrohn's diseaseUlcerative colitis
IHD eventsIRR (95% CI)p* ValueIHD eventsIRR (95% CI)p* ValueIHD eventsIRR (95% CI)p* Value
Total
 Partly adjusted†8631.40 (1.31 to 1.50)1611.41 (1.21 to 1.64)6081.38 (1.27 to 1.49)
 Fully adjusted‡8631.22 (1.14 to 1.30)1611.15 (0.99 to 1.35)6081.22 (1.13 to 1.32)
Gender
 Women4271.33 (1.21 to 1.46)851.27 (1.03 to 1.57)2951.33 (1.19 to 1.49)
 Men4361.14 (1.04 to 1.26)0.03761.07 (0.85 to 1.34)0.283131.16 (1.04 to 1.29)0.09
Age at IBD diagnosis (years)
 15–34331.37 (0.98 to 1.93)101.49 (0.80 to 2.77)191.42 (0.90 to 2.72)
 35–491691.53 (1.32 to 1.78)441.75 (1.30 to 2.36)1031.46 (1.20 to 1.77)
 50–642801.19 (1.06 to 1.34)561.20 (0.93 to 1.56)1971.20 (1.04 to 1.38)
 ≥653811.14 (1.03 to 1.26)0.02510.86 (0.65 to 1.13)0.012891.18 (1.06 to 1.33)0.31
Treatment of IBD§
 5-ASA5071.16 (1.06 to 1.26)681.02 (0.80 to 1.29)3571.15 (1.04 to 1.28)
 No 5-ASA3561.36 (1.22 to 1.51)0.02931.32 (1.07 to 1.61)0.042511.39 (1.23 to 1.57)0.02
 Oral corticosteroids4601.37 (1.25 to 1.50)841.27 (1.03 to 1.57)3191.43 (1.29 to 1.60)
 No oral corticosteroids4031.23 (1.12 to 1.36)<0.01771.20 (0.96 to 1.50)0.732891.19 (1.06 to 1.34)0.02
 Azathioprine1041.10 (0.91 to 1.33)280.98 (0.67 to 1.41)561.26 (0.97 to 1.64)
 No azathioprine7591.25 (1.17 to 1.34)0.211331.22 (1.03 to 1.45)0.275521.24 (1.14 to 1.34)0.88
 TNFα antagonists50.60 (0.25 to 1.44)30.84 (0.27 to 2.59)0
 No TNFα antagonists8581.24 (1.16 to 1.32)0.071581.18 (1.01 to 1.37)0.546081.22 (1.13 to 1.32)
 Major intestinal surgery930.92 (0.75 to 1.13)250.62 (0.42 to 0.92)541.21 (0.93 to 1.59)
 No major intestinal surgery7701.29 (1.20 to 1.38)0.011361.40 (1.18 to 1.66)<0.015541.24 (1.15 to 1.35)0.86
  • *p Value for homogeneity test performed by a likelihood ratio test.

  • †Partly adjusted: excluding first-year cases and adjusting for age, gender, socioeconomic status and calendar year.

  • ‡Partly adjusted plus additional adjustment for use (time-dependent) of comorbidity-related drugs (antidiabetic agents, antihypertensive drugs, cholesterol-lowering drugs, anticoagulant drugs and antiarrhythmic agents). All estimates below this row are based on the fully adjusted model.

  • §Ever use of given drug (treated as time-dependent variable).

  • 5-ASA, 5-aminosalicylic acids; TNFα, tumour necrosis factor α.