TableĀ 1

Possible explanations and proposed solutions for disappointing therapeutic results of probiotic treatment of IBD and other conditions

Reason for failureProposed solution
Wrong targetsIndividualise treatment based on molecular pattern of dysbiosis
Wrong probiotic agentsUse protective commensal enteric species, which may be more suitable than probiotics derived from cultured milk or foods, complex groups of commensal species or even intact normal bacterial communities (faecal transplant)
Targeting incorrect disease mechanismsTailor therapeutic agent to correct underlying genetic defect/inflammatory pathway in an individual
Product not as potent as neededGenetically enhance bacterial function through addition or deletion of bioactive genes (pharmabiotics)
Product not administered at a time in relation to the disease onset where it can be effectiveTarget therapy to phase of disease process
Age of the subjectTailor therapy to age/developmental stage of individual subject
  • IBD, inflammatory bowel disease.