Table 1

Clinical and biochemical characteristics of the whole population according to disease status

VariablesNON-MS-near normal liver histology subjects SS patients NASH patientsp Value* p< p Value† p< p Value‡ p< 
Number of subjects182322
Female/male, %10/814/912/10NSNSNS
Age, years48.3±8.751.6±10.548±9.2NSNSNS
Smoking habit, cigarettes/day0.7±2.63.1±5.90.5±1.5NSNSNS
Physical activity, h/week1.4±2.80.8±1.50.5±0.9NSNSNS
BMI, kg/m225.3±4.131.6±531.2±60.0001NS0.001
Waist circumference, cm94.2±12106.9±8.2102.6±16.50.001NS0.01
Waist/hip ratio0.9±0.11.0±0.10.9±0.1NSNSNS
SABP, mm Hg117.8±18.6124.4±14124.7±11.0NSNSNS
DABP, mm Hg70±11.276.7±13.080±8.4NSNS0.04
Fasting plasma glucose, mmol/l4.81±0.565.69±0.895.62±0.670.001NS0.001
Fasting plasma insulin, pmol/l41.0±10.497.2±81.397.9±68.30.01NS0.002
HOMA-IR index1.24±0.83.4±0.53.6±0.50.001NS0.002
Total cholesterol, mmol/l5.02±0.985.21±0.915.73±1.42NSNSNS
HDL-cholesterol, mmol/l1.77±0.411.22±0.341.37±0.340.01NS0.02
LDL-cholesterol, mmol/l2.71±0.933.24±1.013.53±1.29NSNSNS
Triglycerides, mmol/l1.51±1.171.93±0.622.43±1.500.03NS0.04
Uric acid, mmol/l226±101315±89345±107NSNS0.05
ALT, U/L81.3±7668.6±4059.9±41NSNSNS
AST, U/L51.9±3838.4±1537.9±25NSNSNS
GGT, U/L104.5±11471.1±4973.3±42NSNSNS
AP, U/L238.2±194215.4±104178.4±71NSNSNS
Histological features
 Degree of steatosis, %35±22.162.6±20.60.001
 Lobular inflammation (0–3)0.4±0.51.3±0.90.003
 Portal inflammation (0–2)0.5±0.51.1±0.40.001
 Hepatocellular ballooning (0–2)01.2±0.40.0000001
 Fibrosis stage01.1±1.10.01
 NAS score2.3±1.15.9±1.80.00001
  • Results are expressed as mean±SD. All measurements are in SI units.

  • *Indicates comparisons between SS versus Non-MS-near normal liver subjects.

  • †Stands for comparisons between NASH versus Simple steatosis.

  • ‡Stands for comparisons between NASH versus Non-MS-near normal liver. p Value stands for statistical significance using Mann–Whitney U test, except for female/male proportion that p value stands for statistical significance using χ2 test.

  • ALT and AST, serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase; AP, alkaline phosphatase; BMI, body mass index; DABP, diastolic arterial blood pressure; GGT, gamma-glutamyl-transferase; HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance; MS, metabolic syndrome; NS, non significant; NASH, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; SABP, systolic arterial blood pressure; SS, simple steatosis.