Table 2

Summary of risk factors for development of Barrett's oesophagus

StudyYearNo of patientsDesignRisk factorsGrade of evidence
Gerson et al572001517 GORD (99 with Barrett's)Prospective questionnaireMale gender
Nocturnal pain
Eloubeidi et al582001104 GORD
107 Barrett's
Prospective comparative study Questionnaire to patients with GORD vs Barrett'sAge>40
Heartburn or regurgitation
Heartburn >once a week
Avidan et al592002256 Barrett's
229 non-erosive GORD
Prospective case–control study NERD vs Barrett's oesophagusNo of reflux episodes
Hiatus hernia
Excess of smoking and alcohol
El-Serag et al64200536 with Barrett's
93 without Barrett's
Retrospective case–control study
Patients with endoscopy + CT
BMI>30: OR for Barrett's 4.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 11.1)
Smith et al602005167 with Barrett's
261 controls
Population-based case–controlWeekly acid reflux (OR 29.7)
Smoking (OR 3.1)
Positive interaction between reflux and obesity or smoking
Cook et al552005Meta-analysis male vs femaleMale/female ratio 1.96:1Ia
Edelstein et al622007193 with Barrett's
211 controls
Case–control studyObesity: waist-to-hip ratio (OR 2.4)
Association with BMI weaker
Corley et al632007320 with Barrett's
316 with GORD 317 controls
Case–control studyObesity: association with abdominal circumference >80 No association with BMIIIa
Anderson et al652007224 with Barrett's
227 with OAC
260 controls
Population-based case–control studyGORD symptoms, BMI and smoking associated with OA but not Barrett'sIIa
Edelstein et al562009197 with Barrett's
418 controls
Case–control studyOlder age
Male gender
Obesity (waist-to-hip ratio)
Taylor et al612010Meta-analysis of 26 studiesGORD symptoms associated with long-segment Barrett's (heterogeneous association with short-segment Barrett's)Ia
Chak et al67200258 with Barrett's
106 controls
Case–control studyIn individuals with family history, OR for Barrett's 12.2 (95% CI 3.3 to 44.8)IIa
Su et al692012Discovery cohort
1852 with Barrett's
5172 controls
GWAS6p21 locus OR 1.21
16q24 OR 1.14
  • BMI, body mass index; GWAS, genome-wide association study; NERD, non-erosive reflux disease; OAC, oesophageal adenocarcinoma; OR, odds ratio.