Table 2

Demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants

CharacteristicControlsPatients with FDp Value
Gender, F:M10:510:5
Age, years (range)28.4±2.3 (19–48)28.9±2.6 (17–52)
Dyspeptic symptoms, DSS2.0 (0.0–3.0)19.0 (11.5–21.8)<0.0001
BMI, kg/m²22.9±0.720.5±0.50.01
Food allergy, number1/153/150.60
Depression, PHQ-91.0 (0.0–1.3)6.0 (4.0–13.3)0.0001
Gastrointestinal-specific anxiety, VSI4.0 (2.0–8.0)33.0 (17.0–49.3)0.0004
  • Data are mean±SEM or median (IQR); n=15 for both groups. p<0.05 is shown in bold.

  • BMI, body mass index; DSS, dyspepsia symptom score; F, female; FD, functional dyspepsia; M, male; PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire 9; VSI, Visceral Sensitivity Index.