Table 1

Pathways identified by IBD GWAS

Known IBD pathways confirmed by GWASNovel pathways implicated by GWAS
Barrier functionAutophagy
Role of T cell subsetsRegulation of IL-23 signalling; Th17 development
Cytokine–cytokine receptor signallingROS signalling; IL-1β
CARD9, NOD2 in innate immunity
Innate lymphoid cells
Enrichment for genes implicated in immunodeficiencies
Shared risk genes associated with susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Genetic studies have identified a number of genes and pathways as potential players in the initiation and progression of IBD. Some of these pathways were previously known to be involved in IBD pathogenesis (left), while other pathways had been previously unknown (right).

  • GWAS, genome-wide association studies; IBD, inflammatory bowel diseases; IL, interleukin.