Table 1

Functional studies on micro RNAs (miRNAs)

First authorStudy modelmiRNA of interestmRNA/pathway targetFindings
Nguyen144AIEC infection in T84 cells and mouse enterocytes. Translational studies in ileal CD biopsiesmiR-30C and miR-130AATG5
Adherent  Escherichia coli upregulate miRNAs, reduce levels of ATG5 and ATG16L1 and inhibit autophagy
Zhai145Jurkat T cells
Colonic epithelial cells
miR-142-3pATG16L1Reduced ATG16L1 mRNA and protein levels, regulating autophagy in CD.
Lu146HCT116, SW480, HeLa and U2OS cell lines. Colonic biopsies from CD and healthy controlsmiR106B, miR93ATG16L1Reduced levels of ATG16L1 and autophagy
Brest10HEK-293 cells
Colonic biopsies
miR-196IRGMA risk variant of IRGM alters the binding site for miR-196 and causes deregulation of IRGM-dependent xenophagy in CD
Brain9Dendritic cell line, miR-29 KO murine modelsmiR-29IL-12p40 (direct target)
IL-12p19 (indirect target)
NOD2 induces miR-29 release and limits IL- 23 release
NOD2 polymorphism alters the expression of miR-29 and contributes to pathogenesis in CD.
Xue147IL-10 KO mice
MyD88 KO mice
RAG KO mice
Murine dendrite cells
miR-10aIL-12/IL-23p40miR-10a expression is regulated by the intestinal microbiota and targets the Th17 pathway. This miRNA may play a role in intestinal homoeostasis
Koukos148HCT-116 colonocyte cells, murine models and colonic biopsies from  patients with UCmiR-124STAT3Downregulation of miR-124 results in proinflammatory response in UC

miR-21 KO DSS model and wild type mouse models
Caco-2 cells, colonic biopsies from UC and healthy controls
mir-21RhoBmiR-21 is overexpressed in inflammation and tissue injury. miR-21 KO improves survival in DSS colitis mouse model
Targeting RhoB impairs the tight junction integrity and decreases transepithelial resistance and increases inulin permeability
Nata150IL-10 deficient micemiR-146bsiah2miR-146b improves intestinal inflammation and epithelial barrier by activating NFκB
Chuang92HCT116 colonic epithelial cellsmiR-192, miR-495, miR-512, miR-671NOD2Downregulates NOD2 expression, suppresses NFκB, inhibits IL8 and CXCL3 expression
Chen151Intestinal epithelial cells
Intestinal biopsies
miR-200bTGFβmiR-200b promotes the growth of intestinal epithelial cells by inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition via TGFβ
Feng152UC intestinal biopsies
HCT116 cells
HT29 cells
miR-126IκBαPromotes NFκB mediated inflammation by targeting IκBα, a known inhibitor of the NFκB pathway.
Nguyen153Caco2-BBE cells
Mouse epithelial cells
Colonic CD tissues
miR-7CD98 expressionmiR-7 regulates the expression of CD98. CD98 expression upregulated and miR-7 decreased in actively inflamed CD tissues.
Singh123miR-155 KO micemiR-155Th17 pathwaymiR-155 KO mice models and demonstrated that these mice are protected from experimental colitis compared with wild type mice.
Wu8miR-21 KO TNBS and T cell transfer model of colitis
miR-21 KO DSS colitis model
miR-21Th1 pathwaymiR-21 KO results in reduced DSS induced colitis but exacerbated inflammation in TNBS and T cell transfer model of colitis
  • AIEC, adherent invasive Escherichia coli; CD, Crohn's disease; DSS, dextran sulfate sodium; IL, interleukin; IRGM, immunity related GTPase family M protein; KO, knockout; miR, microRNA; NFκB, nuclear factor-κB; NOD2, nuclear oligomerisation domain-containing protein 2; TGFβ, transforming growth factor β; TNBS, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid.