Table 4

Smoking and dietary factors in Crohn's disease

 Unadjusted (Asia only)Adjusted* (Asia only)Adjusted* (Asia and Australia)
OR95% CIp ValueOR95% CIp ValueOR95% CIp Value
Smoking
 Never111
 Ex1.3430.710 to 2.5410.3651.5540.792 to 3.0510.2001.5690.875 to 2.8140.130
 Current1.0390.578 to 1.8680.8971.2160.657 to 2.2530.5341.3380.792 to 2.2630.277
Fruits (daily)0.8290.576 to 1.1940.3150.8640.594 to 1.2570.4450.920.643 to 1.3180.650
Vegetables (daily)0.6860.434 to 1.0860.1080.7080.444 to 1.1310.1490.8120.512 to 1.2890.378
Eggs (daily)1.0650.707 to 1.6030.7640.9930.655 to 1.5050.9720.9640.645 to 1.4400.856
Bread§
 >4 day1.0900.645 to 1.8410.7491.0980.641 to 1.8800.7341.1980.720 to 1.9910.487
 Wholemeal1.0020.639 to 1.5730.9921.0070.637 to 1.5900.9771.0760.706 to 1.6420.733
Cereal§
 Muesli daily0.5030.224 to 1.1280.0950.4640.206 to 1.0480.0650.5620.271 to 1.1670.122
 Cornflakes daily0.6900.354 to 1.3450.2760.7310.365 to 1.4620.3760.8650.452 to 1.6550.662
Juice (≥twice/week)§1.9521.024 to 3.7210.0421.7800.918 to 3.4510.0880.4430.249 to 0.7880.006
Soft drinks (≥twice/week)§1.7560.887 to 3.4800.1060.7420.369 to 1.4910.4020.7590.386 to 1.4910.423
Coffee (daily)§0.7080.481 to 1.0420.0800.7320.494 to 1.0860.1210.7960.549 to 1.1560.231
Tea (daily)§0.6410.443 to 0.9280.0190.6230.427 to 0.9080.0140.6620.462 to 0.9500.025
Western diet (≥50%)
 At present1.2800.826 to 1.9840.2701.0080.638 to 1.5920.9740.9430.599 to 1.4860.800
 Before 20-years-old1.7011.110 to 2.6060.0151.3430.860 to 2.0980.1941.3210.852 to 2.0500.214
Physical activities
 Daily0.5600.344 to 0.9130.0200.5820.352 to 0.9620.0350.6550.406 to 1.0560.082
 Weekly0.6870.445 to 1.0610.0900.5430.345 to 0.8540.0080.6390.416 to 0.9820.041
 Less often111
Major stressful event before diagnosis1.0150.667 to 1.5450.9461.1070.721 to 1.7010.6421.2980.868 to 1.9420.204
  • Statistically significant results are shown in bold (p<0.05).

  • *Adjusted for sex, age and country income based on GNI.

  • †Significant at p<0.0006 level after Bonferroni adjustment.

  • §>20% ‘unsure’ responses for one of more subject categories.

  • GNI, gross national income.