Table 1

Summary of demographic variables in patients, siblings and controls as well as clinical characteristics in patients

Patients (n=21)Siblings (n=17)Controls (n=19)p Value
Mean age, years (SD)27.7 (6.6)25.5 (4.5)27.7 (5.8)0.783*
Men, n (%)13 (62)11 (65)9 (47)0.515†
Body mass index, kg/m2 (SD)24.5 (5.0)24.5 (3.6)23.9 (3.4)0.870*
Ethnicity, n (%)
 White British17 (81)15 (88)17 (90)0.469†
 Asian/Asian British3 (14)1 (6)0 (0)
 Black British or mixed Black/White1 (5)1 (6)2 (11)
Smoking, n (%)
 Never14 (67)10 (59)12 (63)0.830†
 Current4 (19)5 (29)3 (16)
 Previous3 (14)2 (12)4 (21)
Age at diagnosis, n (%)
 Below 16 years7 (33) 
 16–40 years14 (67) 
Disease location, n (%)
 Ileal7 (33) 
 Colonic5 (24) 
 Ileocolonic9 (43) 
Concomitant upper GI disease, n (%)1 (5) 
Disease behaviour, n (%)
 Non-stricturing, non-penetrating11 (52) 
 Stricturing5 (24) 
 Penetrating5 (24) 
Perianal disease, n (%)4 (19) 
Current 5-ASA, n (%)11 (52) 
Current immuno-suppressant, n (%)
 Azathioprine7 (33) 
 Mercaptopurine2 (10) 
 Methotrexate1 (5) 
Ileocaecal resection/right hemicolectomy, n (%)9 (43) 
Isolated small bowel resection, n (%)1 (5) 
GRR,‡ n (%)
 High3 (14)1 (6)0 (0)0.175†
 Elevated2 (10)3 (18)0 (0)
 Average10 (48)8 (47)8 (42)
 Reduced6 (29)5 (29)11 (58)
Faecal calprotectin, m/g (IQR)281 (144–855)30 (13–83)13 (7–33)<0.001§
Faecal Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, % (IQR)0.1 (0.0–2.9)3.7 (0.4–7.1)5.2 (2.3–7.2)0.001§
T-cells with memory phenotype, % (IQR)73 (63–82)74 (67–83)65 (54–70)0.011§
Naïve CD4+ T-cells, cells/mL (IQR)194 132 (71 053 –341 156)198 220 (128 550 –296 351)380 256 (279 118 –564 861)<0.001§
Naïve CD4+ T-cells expressing β7 integrin, % (IQR)76 (63–85)74 (61–83)52 (32–71)0.003§
Intestinal permeability: urinary lactulose–rhamnose ratio, (IQR)¶0.061 (0.033–0.111)0.034 (0.024–0.056)0.038 (0.025–0.050)0.081§
  • The features of the at-risk phenotype that have previously been delineated in this cohort are also displayed.

  • *One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).

  • †χ2 test.

  • ‡Cumulative genotype relative risk (GRR) for each participant was calculated across 72 CD-risk loci (detected using the Illumina Infinium Immunochip). Participants were categorised into reduced, average, elevated or high genotype risk with reference to a population distribution model of CD risk, as described previously.14

  • §Kruskall–Wallis test.

  • ¶Data from 20 patients, 17 siblings and 16 controls contributed to the intestinal permeability analysis.

  • 5-ASA, 5-aminosalicylic acid; CD, Crohn's disease.