Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the twin cohort

Subjects with NAFLD (MRI-PDFF>5%)Subjects without NAFLD (MRI-PDFF<5%)p Value
Number1862
Demographics
 Age (years)59.1 (±3.47)45.4 (±2.63)0.0109
 Sex (% male)38.917.70.2648
 Race (% White/Black/Hispanic/Asian)66.67/0/22.22/080.65/0/16.13/3.23NA
Physical
 Weight (kg)85.82 (±4.81)65.98 (±1.45)8.7×10−7
 Body mass index (kg/m2)30.14 (±1.39)23.25 (±0.55)5.5×10−7
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)139.33 (±3.81)123.68 (±2.61)0.00395
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)84.22 (±3.3)77.45 (±1.44)0.038
 Waist circumference (cm)98.44 (±2.63)85.61 (±1.29)1.5×10−5
Laboratory data
 Glucose (mg/dL)110.72 (±8.3)87.24 (±1.06)5.8×10−6
 Hgb A1c (%)14.09 (±0.33)13.69 (±0.16)0.234
 HOMA-IR12.47 (±1.3)6.73 (±0.44)9.9×10−7
 AST (U/L)24.28 (±1.47)22.98 (±0.85)0.468
 ALT (U/L)26.78 (±3.14)20.19 (±1.44)0.0406
 Alk Phos (U/L)66.28 (±2.8)67.42 (±2.79)0.833
 Total bilirubin (mg/dL)0.45 (±0.05)0.45 (±0.03)0.935
 Albumin (g/dL)4.49 (±0.05)4.6 (±0.05)0.226
 GGT (U/L)32.72 (±7.47)18.98 (±1.25)0.00374
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL)197.94 (±10.01)192.54 (±5.72)0.65
 HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)52.28 (±3.18)70.1 (±2.85)0.00189
 LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)115.67 (±8.39)107.15 (±4.96)0.407
 Triglycerides (mg/dL)149.83 (±18.01)76.41 (±5.2)7.25×10−7
 INR1.1 (±0.1)1.05 (±0.03)0.547
 Ferritin (ng/mL)137.22 (±40.29)90.44 (±10.14)0.105
Imaging data
 MRI-PDFF (%)10.71 (±0.94)2.25 (±0.09)1.7×10−26
 MR spectroscopy (%)16 (±2.48)1.98 (±0.27)4.8×10−11
 MR elastography (stiffness)2.99 (±0.3)2.07 (±0.05)8.1×10−6
  • All numbers are means (±SEM). A Student's unpaired t test was used for all comparisons, except those of categorical variables (ie, gender) where a Fisher's exact test was used.

  • Alk Phos, alkaline phosphatase; ALT, alanine transaminase; AST, aspartate transaminase; GGT, γ-glutamyl transferase; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; Hgb A1c, glycosylated haemoglobin; HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment—insulin resistance; INR, international normalised ratio; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; MRI-PDFF, MRI-estimated proton-density fat fraction; NA, not applicable; NAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.