Table 1

Characteristics of included studies

Author (year) referenceCountryMethod used to identify BAM in patients with FBD+diarrhoeaInclusion/exclusion* criteria for IBS-D or chronic diarrhoeaInclusion of cholecystectomy patientsAge of patients (years)Gender
Aziz et al (2015)17UK75SeHCATRome IIINo41.786/32 (F/M)
Bajor et al (2015)15Sweden75SeHCATRome IINo35.3 (17–71)102/39 (F/M)
Borghede (2011)18Denmark75SeHCATChronic diarrhoea: >2 formed stools/dayNo42 (16–82)198/100 (F/M)
Brydon et al (1996)19UK75SeHCAT, serum C4Chronic diarrhoea: no specificationsNo47 (18–84) F
43 (16–79) M
108/56 (F/M)
Brydon et al (2011)20ScotlandSerum C4Unexplained diarrhoea: diagnosed as type I, II, III BAMYesNot reportedNot reported
Camilleri et al (2009)21USASerum C4IBS-D: criteria not specifiedYesNot reportedNot reported
Camilleri (2014)22USASerum FGF19, C4 and total faecal BA in 48 hRome IIIYes41.9±1.559/5
Eusufzai (1993)23Sweden75SeHCATChronic diarrhoea: no specificationsNo45 (24–63)12/2 (F/M)
Fernandez-Banares (2001)24Spain75SeHCATRome IIYes52.721/11 (F/M)
Fernandez-Banares et al (2007)25Spain75SeHCATRome IINo52.2±247/15 (F/M)
Ford (1992)26UK75SeHCATUnexplained diarrhoea: type I and III BAM excludedNo18–7989/77 (F/M): total group
Galatola (1992)27Italy75SeHCATRome III criteria listedYes43 (14–76)53/45 (F/M)
Gracie et al (2012)28UK75SeHCATIBS-D: criteria not specifiedNo48 (17–90)258/373 (F/M)
Gray and Robinson (2013)29Ireland75SeHCATIBS-D: criteria not specifiedNonot reported41/20
Hashim et al (2012)30UK75SeHCATIBS-D: criteria not specifiedYesNot reportedNot reported
Kok et al (2013)31UK75SeHCATIBS-D: criteria not specifiedNo37–74Not reported
Kumar (2013)32UK75SeHCATChronic diarrhoea: no specificationsNot reportedNot reportedNot reported
Kurien et al (2011)33UK75SeHCATRome II IBS-DNo49 (17–86)192/81 (F/M)
Maisterra et al (2012)34Spain75SeHCATRome IIYes58 (42–74)61/23
Merrick et al (1985)35UK75SeHCATChronic diarrhoea: no specificationsYesNot reportedNot reported
Muller et al (2004)36Sweden75SeHCATRome III, but only 4 weeks of symptomsYes46103/55 (F/M)
Notta et al (2014)37Spain75SeHCATChronic diarrhoea: no specificationsNot reported(20–87)56/22 (F/M)
Orekoya et al (2012)38UK75SeHCATIBS-D: no criteria documented in abstractNoNot reportedNot reported
Pattni et al (2013)39UKSerum FGF19Chronic diarrhoea of unknown aetiology, ≥3 stools per day of Bristol stool type 6 or 7, with symptoms persisting for more than 3 monthsNo45 (31–59) 47/25
75SeHCAT47 (34–57)30/24
Rossel (1999)40Denmark75SeHCAT>2 watery stools/day for 3 weeksNo52 (32–80)10/6 (F/M)
Rudberg and Nylander (1996)41Sweden75SeHCATUrgent watery diarrhoea for a mean of 13 years; otherwise not specifiedNo13 (1–30)16/4 (F/M)
Sauter (1999)42GermanySerum C4Chronic diarrhoea: no specificationsNo49.4±15.313/10 (F/M)
Sciarretta (1987)43Italy75SeHCATIBS-D: no criteria documentedNo41 (17–73)26/20 (F/M)
Sciarretta et al (1994)44Italy75SeHCATChronic diarrhoea: no specificationsNo43 (23–68)7/7 (F/M)
Shivaji et al (2014)45UK75SeHCATChronic diarrhoea, extensive evaluation for organic causesNot reportedNot reportedNot reported
Sinha et al (1998)46UK75SeHCATManning criteriaNo50 (43–57)3/6 (F/M)
Smith et al (2000)47UK75SeHCATdiarrhoea, bloating, relief after BM, normal GI testingYesNot reportedNot reported
Thomsen et al (1998)48Denmark75SeHCATUnexplained chronic diarrhoea after exclusion of other causesNot reportedNot reportedNot reported
Ung (2000)49Sweden75SeHCATLong-standing diarrhoea with questionnaire documentation for Rome III criteriaNo52 (22–85)58/36 (F/M)
Wildt (2003)50Denmark75SeHCAT3 weeks’ change in stool frequency and/or consistencyNoNot reported87/48 (F/M): total
Wong et al (2012)51USASerum C4, FGF19, total faecal BA in 48 hRome IIYes40 (29–51)Not reported
  • *Extensively ruled out organic causes of chronic diarrhoea.

  • BA, bile acid; BAM, bile acid malabsorption; BM, bowel movement; FBD, functional bowel disorder; FGF19, fibroblast growth factor 19; IBS-D, diarrhoea-predominant IBS; 75SeHCAT, 75selenium homotaurocholic acid test.