Table 6

Examples of DAMPs and their receptors

Released by necrotic cells
 Monosodium urateNACHT, LRR and PYD domains containing protein 3 (also known as cryopyrin; encoded by NLRP3, alias NALP3)
Nuclear DAMPs
 High-mobility group protein 1 (encoded by HMGB1)
  • Advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor (encoded by AGER also known as RAGE)

  • TLRs

 Histone deacetylase complex subunit SAP130C-type lectin domain family 4 member E (encoded by CLECSF9 also known as MINCLE)
 Extracellular histonesUnknown
IL-1 family
 IL-1αIL-1R-1 and IL-1RAcP
 IL-33IL-1 receptor-like 1 (also known as protein ST2) and IL-1RAcP
S100 calcium-binding protein family
 S100A8, S100A9TLR4
Mitochondrial DAMPs
 Mitochondrial DNATLR9
 N-formylated peptidesFormyl peptide receptor
PeroxiredoxinsTLR2, TLR4
Products of extracellular matrix breakdown
 Low-molecular weight fragments of hyaluronic acidTLR4
  • *Protein names used for DAMPs and receptors are official names provided by UniProtKB (; genes symbols are provided by Hugo Gene Nomenclature Committee (

  • DAMP, danger-associated molecular pattern; HSP, heat shock protein; IL, interleukin; IL-1R-1, IL-1 receptor type 1; IL-1RAcP, IL-1 receptor accessory protein; LRR, leucine-rich repeats; MINCLE, macrophage inducible C-type lectin; NACHT, NAIP, CIITA, HET-E and TP1; PYD, pyrin domain; TLR, toll-like receptor.