Table 2

Pooled prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms according to criteria used to define their presence, duration of symptoms and method used to collect symptom data

Studies (n)Subjects (n)Pooled prevalence (%)95% CII2 (%)p Value for I2
Criteria used to define gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms
 Weekly symptoms79378 80613.312.0–14.699.2<0.001
  Broad weekly heart burn and/or regurgitation2213 49813.611.4–15.999.2<0.001
  Mayo reflux questionnaire1239 93714.911.1–19.199.1<0.001
  Montreal criteria10126 20714.710.5–19.599.7<0.001
  Digest questionnaire155817.04.5–9.993.6<0.001
  GerdQ questionnaire614 92111.74.3–22.099.6<0.001
  Bowel disease questionnaire6714513.88.7–19.997.9<0.001
  Other questionnaires2245 51714.211.6–16.998.4<0.001
 Rome I2710324.915.6–35.5N/AN/A
 Rome II2164921.318.9–23.9N/AN/A
Duration of symptoms
 1 week918 49413.57.3–21.399.4<0.001
 1 month741 19120.113.2–28.099.6<0.001
 3 months1163 18211.38.3–14.799.3<0.001
 6 months634 94317.69.9–26.999.7<0.001
 12 months36170 57014.112.2–16.199.1<0.001
Method used to collect symptom data
 Postal questionnaire3073 77619.015.8–22.599.3<0.001
 Face-to-face interview22120 06114.111.5–17.099.4<0.001
 Self-completed questionnaire16112 76612.09.3–15.199.4<0.001
 Telephone interview1659 63910.48.1–13.098.9<0.001
 Interview-administered questionnaire1746 71516.413.4–19.798.7<0.001
  • N/A, not applicable, too few studies to assess heterogeneity.