Table 3

Antibiotic use at age 40–59 and risk of colorectal adenoma, Nurses’ Health Study 2004–2010

Antibiotic use at age 40–59
None1–14 days15 days to 2 months2 months+ptrend
Total adenoma
 No. of cases (n=1195)66637357135
 Age-adjusted* OR (95% CI)1 (referent)1.35 (1.04–1.75)1.53 (1.17–2.01)1.74 (1.28–2.37)<0.001
 Multivariable† OR (95% CI)1 (referent)1.32 (1.01–1.72)1.51 (1.14–1.99)1.69 (1.24–2.31)0.001
High risk‡
 No. of cases (n=436)2624112346
 Age-adjusted* OR (95% CI)1 (referent)1.34 (0.89–2.02)1.42 (0.92–2.19)1.64 (1.00–2.67)0.11
 Multivariable† OR (95% CI)1 (referent)1.32 (0.87–2.02)1.43 (0.92–2.22)1.60 (0.97–2.65)0.12
Low risk
 No. of cases (n=630)3233219472
 Age-adjusted* OR (95% CI)1 (referent)1.41 (0.98–2.05)1.66 (1.13–2.43)1.82 (1.19–2.80)0.01
 Multivariable† OR (95% CI)1 (referent)1.37 (0.95–1.99)1.61 (1.10–2.37)1.74 (1.13–2.70)0.01
Proximal
 No. of cases (n=709)2938222870
 Age-adjusted* OR (95% CI)1 (referent)1.84 (1.25–2.71)2.24 (1.51–3.34)2.07 (1.32–3.22)0.01
 Multivariable† OR (95% CI)1 (referent)1.89 (1.28–2.79)2.29 (1.53–3.42)2.13 (1.35–3.35)0.01
Distal
 No. of cases (n=509)3426914264
 Age-adjusted* OR (95% CI)1 (referent)1.11 (0.78–1.60)1.20 (0.82–1.76)1.67 (1.09–2.55)0.01
 Multivariable† OR (95% CI)1 (referent)1.04 (0.72–1.50)1.15 (0.78–1.68)1.49 (0.96–2.29)0.02
Rectal
 No. of cases (n=163)11924416
 Age-adjusted* OR (95% CI)1 (referent)1.20 (0.64–2.28)1.20 (0.61–2.36)1.34 (0.61–2.95)0.64
 Multivariable† OR (95% CI)1 (referent)1.16 (0.61–2.21)1.14 (0.57–2.29)1.37 (0.62–3.04)0.56
  • *Adjusted for age, time period of colonoscopy, number of reported endoscopies, time since most recent endoscopy and reason for current colonoscopy.

  • †Additionally adjusted for family history of colorectal cancer, history of diabetes, menopausal status and postmenopausal hormone use, body mass index, height, regular use of aspirin, current use of multivitamin, alcohol intake, smoking, total calorie, folate, calcium intake, red and processed meat intake, and Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) 2010.

  • ‡High-risk adenomas include adenoma ≥1 cm, or with tubulovillous/villous histology, or ≥3 adenomas.