Table 1

Demographics and cirrhosis characteristics of subjects in the cross-sectional study

Controls
(n=26)
Outpatients
(n=77)
Inpatients
(n=66)
Age (years)52.8±8.455.9±5.655.3±10.2
Gender (men/women)17/958/1946/20
Aetiology (HCV, alcohol, HCV+alcohol, NAFLD, others)33/9/8/18/916/17/15/11/7
MELD score13.3±6.619.8±6.4*
Prior hepatic encephalopathy22 (28%)40 (61%)*
Lactulose alone/any rifaximin8/1416/24*
SBP prophylaxis12 (15%)4 (6%)*
Proton pump inhibitors0 (0%)30 (39%)38 (58%)
Non-selective beta-blockers0 (0%)2716 (57%)
Diabetes0 (0%)3318
Infection (none/culture positive/culture negative)0 (0%)19/22/25
Endotoxin levels (EU/mL)0.01±0.030.08±0.030.19±0.10*
  • *p<0.05 on analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis depending on data type.

  • MELD, model for end-stage liver disease; NALFD; non alcoholic fatty liver disease; SBP, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.