Table 4

Clinical course and mortality of patients with ACLF triggered or complicated by infection receiving appropriate or inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment*

Bacterial infection at ACLF diagnosis (n=152)Bacterial infection during follow-up† (n=117)
Inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment
(n=35)
Appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment
(n=112)
Inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment
(n=24)
Appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment
(n=84)
ICU admission and organ support
 ICU26 (74.3)68 (60.7)18 (75.0)42 (50.0)‡
 Mechanical ventilation17 (48.6)40 (35.7)10 (41.7)28 (33.3)
 Renal replacement therapy15 (42.9)35 (31.3)7 (29.2)20 (23.8)
ACLF evolution
 No ACLF or ACLF-1 at final assessment12 (35.3)59 (55.1)‡12 (54.6)47 (57.3)
 ACLF 2–3 at final assessment22 (64.7)48 (44.9)10 (45.4)35 (42.7)
28-day transplant free mortality19 (54.3)32 (28.6)§11 (45.8)26 (31.0)
90-day transplant-free mortality26 (74.3)47 (42.0)¶16 (66.7)36 (42.9)‡
  • *According to microbiological results or the need for escalation of initial antibiotic treatments in culture negative infections. Data on empirical antibiotic therapy were not available in 14 patients.

  • †Patients with ACLF and bacterial infection at diagnosis of the syndrome were excluded from this analysis

  • ‡p Value<0.05;

  • §p Value<0.01;

  • ¶p Value<0.001.

  • ACLF, acute-on-chronic liver failure; AD, acute decompensation; ICU, intensive care unit.