Table 3

Type and characteristics of bacterial infections at ACLF diagnosis or during follow-up: relationship with infection resolution and patient mortality

Patients with bacterial infections at ACLF diagnosisPatients with bacterial infections during follow-up
NResolution RateMortality at 28 daysMortality at 90 daysNResolution RateMortality at 28 daysMortality at 90 days
Prevalence and types of infection
 Prevalence of bacterial infections (n/%)152108 (71.1)54 (35.5)77 (50.7)11792 (78.6)45 (38.5)60 (51.3)
 Type of Infections (n/%)
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (move to the right)4126 (63.4)*
wrong p value. It should be 0.01
19 (46.3)24 (58.5)†
wrong p value. It should be 0.05
2216 (72.7)10 (45.5)13 (59.1)
  Urinary infections2524 (96.0)5 (20.0)11 (44.0)2723 (85.2)8 (29.6)11 (40.7)
  Pneumonia3220 (62.5)12 (37.5)18 (56.3)2215 (68.2)12 (54.6)14 (63.6)
  Unproven infections169 (56.3)7 (43.8)8 (50.0)1816 (88.9)11 (61.1)12 (66.7)
  SSTI126 (50.0)7 (58.3)9 (75.0)76 (85.7)1 (14.3)
 Spontaneous/secondary bacteraemia (move to the right97 (77.8)2 (22.2)3 (33.3)108 (80.0)2 (20.0)5 (50.0)
 Secondary bacterial peritonitis (move to the right1110 (90.9)2 (18.2)4 (36.5)21 (50.0)2 (100.0)
  Other‡66 (100.0)87 (87.5)1 (12.5)2 (25.0)
  Clostridium difficile infection011 (100.0)
Characteristics of bacterial infection
 Site of acquisition (n/%)
  Community-acquired3827 (71.1)15 (39.5)16 (42.1)
  Healthcare-associated3420 (58.8)14 (41.2)19 (55.9)
  Nosocomial8061 (76.3)25 (31.3)42 (52.5)11792 (78.6)45 (38.5)60 (51.3)
 Multiresistant bacterial infection (n/%)
  No12894 (73.4)43 (33.6)60 (46.9)†
wrong p value. It should be 0.05
9577 (81.1)36 (37.9)47 (49.5)
  Yes2414 (58.3)11 (45.8)17 (70.8)2215 (68.2)9 (40.9)13 (59.1)
 Severity of infection (n/%)
  No sepsis7863 (80.8)*
wrong p value. It should be 0.01
23 (29.5)37 (47.4)6851 (75.0)23(33.8)31(45.6)
  Sepsis02620 (76.9)10 (38.5)15 (57.7)
  Severe sepsis or shock7445 (60.8)31 (41.9)40 (54.1)2315 (65.2)12 (52.2)14 (60.9)
  • *p Value<0.05.

  • †p Value<0.01.

  • ‡Other infections at diagnosis of ACLF: tracheobronchitis (4), spontaneous bacterial empyema (n=1), cholangitis (1), undefined (3). Other infections during follow-up: dental infection (1), undefined (8).

  • ACLF, acute-on-chronic liver failure; SSTI, skin and soft tissue infections.