Table 5

Predictors of 90-day mortality in the univariate and multivariate analysis in patients with ACLF-1 and ACLF-2

PredictorsUnivariate analysisMultivariate analysis*
HR (CI 95%)p ValueHR (CI 95%)p Value
Model 1. Without considering appropriateness of empirical antibiotic therapy
 Infection (at ACLF diagnosis or during follow-up)1.65 (1.05 to 2.60)0.0311.79 (1.08 to 2.96)0.023
 Age (years)1.01 (0.99 to 1.03)0.1471.03 (1.00 to 1.05)0.018
 Encephalopathy (%)†1.56 (1.03 to 2.37)0.036
 Leukocytes (×109/L)†1.07 (1.04 to 1.11)<0.001
 Bilirubin (mg/dL)†1.02 (1.01 to 1.04)0.0071.03 (1.01 to 1.05)<0.001
 INR†1.11 (0.91 to 1.36)0.299
 Creatinine (mg/dL)†1.12 (0.98 to 1.28)0.0981.14 (1.01 to 1.29)0.041
 Heart rate (bpm)†1.02 (1.01 to 1.03)0.001
 Mechanical ventilation‡2.55 (1.62 to 4.01)<0.001
 Renal replacement therapy‡2.32 (1.51 to 3.57)<0.001
Model 2. Considering appropriateness of empirical antibiotic therapy
 Infection (at ACLF diagnosis or during follow-up)1.65 (1.05 to 2.60)0.0311.99 (0.65 to 6.10)0.228
 Appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy0.41 (0.27 to 0.62)<0.0010.40 (0.26 to 0.63)<0.001
 Age (years)1.01 (0.99 to 1.03)0.1471.02 (1.00 to 1.04)0.037
 Encephalopathy (%)†1.56 (1.03 to 2.37)0.036
 Leukocytes (×109/L)†1.07 (1.04 to 1.11)<0.001
 Bilirubin (mg/dL)†1.02 (1.01 to 1.04)0.0071.03 (1.01 to 1.05)0.009
 INR†1.11 (0.91 to 1.36)0.299
 Creatinine (mg/dL)†1.12 (0.98 to 1.28)0.098
 Heart rate (bpm)†1.02 (1.01 to 1.03)0.001
 Mechanical ventilation‡2.55 (1.62 to 4.01)<0.001
 Renal replacement therapy‡2.32 (1.51 to 3.57)<0.001
  • *Mechanical ventilation and leukocytes were not included in the multivariate model because of potential collinearity with infection.

  • †At ACLF diagnosis.

  • ‡Within the 4 weeks follow-up period.

  • ACLF, acute-on-chronic liver failure; bpm, beats per minute; INR: international normalized ratio.