Table 1

Risk factors of enterocolitis due to immune checkpoint inhibitors

Risk factorsReferences
Type of ICICombotherapy>anti-CTLA-4>anti-PD-1Tandon et al 9
Dose of ICIDose-dependant toxicity with anti-CTLA-4Ascierto et al 11
NSAIDs useSuggested with anti-CTLA-4Marthey et al 25
Pre-existing IBDAbout 30% risk of relapse with anti-CTLA-4; not reported with anti-PD-1Johnson et al 12
Kähler et al 13
Menzies et al 15
MicrobiotaBaseline microbiota enriched in Firmicutes and poor in Bacteroidetes with anti-CTLA-4Chaput et al 84
Tumour histologyIncreased risk in melanoma as compared with NSCLC and RCC with anti-PD-1Khoja et al 7
Wang et al 8
  • CTLA-4, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4; ICI, immune checkpoint inhibitor; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; NSCLC, non-small cell lung carcinoma; PD-1, programmed death-1; RCC, renal cell carcinoma.