Table 1

Baseline demographic and disease characteristics

Huaier group (n=686)Control group (n=316)P values
Age (years), n (%)
 <65573 (83.53)275 (87.03)0.1537
 ≥65113 (16.47)41 (12.97)
Sex, n (%)
 Male565 (82.36)255 (80.70)0.5252
 Female121 (17.64)61 (19.30)
Smoking, n (%)
 Never436 (63.56)208 (65.82)0.7716
 Yes211 (30.76)92 (29.11)
 Quitted39 (5.69)16 (5.06)
Alcohol consumption, n (%)
 Yes147 (21.43)68 (21.52)0.9742
 No539 (78.57)248 (78.48)
No of tumours, n (%)
 Single tumour595 (86.73)274 (86.71)0.7924
 Multiple tumours91 (13.27)42 (13.29)
Size of tumour (cm), n (%)
 <255 (8.02)25 (7.91)0.1053
 ≥2, <5340 (49.56)149 (47.15)
 ≥5, <10240 (34.99)100 (31.65)
 ≥1051 (7.43)42 (13.29)
Tumour capsule, n (%)
 Yes537 (78.28)246 (77.85)0.8779
 No149 (21.72)70 (22.15)
Child-Pugh class†, n (%)
 A643 (93.73)291 (92.09)0.3366
 B43 (6.27)25 (7.91)
BCLC status‡, n (%)
 A547 (79.74)239 (75.63)0.1421
 B139 (20.26)77 (24.37)
Virus infection, n (%)
 (–)129 (18.80)76 (24.05)0.2052
 HBV544 (79.30)234 (74.05)
 HCV8 (1.17)5 (1.58)
 Others5 (0.73)1 (0.32)
Edmondson-Steiner grade, n (%)
 I76 (11.08)33 (10.44)0.5081
 II412 (60.06)190 (60.13)
 III190 (27.70)84 (26.58)
 IV8 (1.17)9 (2.85)
Liver cirrhosis, n (%)
 No213 (31.05)118 (37.34)0.0492*
 Yes473 (68.95)198 (62.66)
Ascites, n (%)
 No634 (92.42)290 (91.77)0.7222
 Yes52 (7.58)26 (8.23)
Splenomegaly, n (%)
 No575 (83.82)263 (83.23)0.8141
 Yes111 (16.18)53 (16.77)
AFP (ng/mL), n (%)
 <400465 (67.98)201 (64.42)0.2686
 ≥400219 (32.02)111 (35.58)
 Missing (n)24
TNM class§, n (%)
 I595 (86.74)274 (86.71)0.9876
 II49 (7.14)22 (6.96)
 III42 (6.12)20 (6.33)
  • *P<0.05.

  • †Child-Pugh score is calculated by assessing ascites (1 point for none, 2 points for slight and 3 points for moderate), serum bilirubin level (1 point for <2.0 mg/dL, 2 points for 2.0–3.0 mg/dL and 3 points for >3.0 mg/dL), serum albumin level (1 point for >3.5 mg/dL, 2 points for 2.8–3.5 mg/dL and 3 points for <2.8 mg/dL), prolongation of prothrombin time (1 point for <4 s, 2 points for 4–6 s and 3 points for >6 s) and encephalopathy (1 point for none, 2 points for grade 1 or 2, and 3 points for grade 3 or 4). Child-Pugh class A is a total score of 5 or 6 points, and class B is a total score of 7–9 points.

  • ‡BCLC stage A disease is defined as Child-Pugh classification of A or B, an ECOG performance status of 0 and single tumour <5 cm or three tumours <3 cm each; stage B disease is defined as Child-Pugh classification of A or B, an ECOG performance status of 0 and a multinodular tumour.

  • §TNM class is based on the American Joint Committee on Cancer, 7th Edition.35

  • AFP, alpha-fetoprotein; BCLC, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Staging System; ECOG, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group.