Table 4

Associations between baseline gut microbiota and GI immune-related adverse events, as well as antitumour response in human patients

ReferencesPatientsMethodsBacteria associated with antitumour responseBacteria associated with non-responseBacteria associated with GI irAEMetabolomics results
Chaput et al 84 26 MM patients treated with ipiPCR 16SFirmicutes
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii L2-6, butyrate producing bacterium L2-21, Gemmiger formicilis ATCC 27749
Bacteroidetes (mostly Bacteroides genus)Colitis: Firmicutes
 No colitis: Bacteroidetes (mostly Bacteroides genus)
Dubin et al 98 34 MM patients treated with ipiPCR 16SNANAColitis-free: BacteroidetesSpermidine/putrescine polyamine transport
Biosynthesis of B1, B2 and B5 vitamins*
Frankel et al 99 39 MM patients treated with anti-PD-1 (n=14), ipi (n=1) or both (n=24)Metagenomic shotgun sequencing F. prausnitzii, Bacteroidesthetaiotaomicron, Holdemania filiformis in responders to ipi/nivo combinationNANAICI responders: fatty acid synthesis *
Increased anacardic acid levels †
Responders to ipi/nivo combination therapy: inositol phosphate metabolism*
Routy et al 100 249 patients with NSCLC, RCC or urothelial carcinoma treated with anti-PD-1Metagenomic shotgun sequencingFirmicutes, Akkermansia, Alistipes,
Decreased Bifidobacterium adolescentis
Bifidobacterium longum
Parabacteroides distasonis
Gopalakrishnan et al 101 89 MM patients treated with anti-PD-1Metagenomic shotgun sequencingGut microbiota diversity
Clostridiales Faecalibacterium genus
Bacteroidales B. thetaiotaomicron, Escherichia coli Anaerotruncus colihominis NANA
Matson et al 102 42 MM patients treated with anti-PD-1PCR 16S,
metagenomic shotgun sequencing qPCR
Enterococcus faecium, Collinsella aerofaciens, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Veillonella parvula, Parabacteroides merdae, Lactobacillus sp Bifidobacterium longum, Ruminococcus obeum, Roseburia intestinalis NANA
  • *Conversion of shotgun sequencing reads of baseline gut microbiota into relative abundances metabolic modules.130 131

  • †Using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy.

  • GI irAE, GI immune-related adverse effects; ICI, immune checkpoint inhibitor; ipi, ipilimumab; MM, melanoma; NSCLC, non-small-cell lung carcinoma; PD-1, programmed death-1; RCC, renal carcinoma; NA, not addressed; nivo, nivolumab.