Table 3

Differences in anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 GI immune adverse events

Incidence of diarrhoea/colitis30.2%/5.7%12.1%/0.7%
Incidence of grade 3–4 diarrhoea/colitis7.4 % / 4.1%1%/0.4%
Immunopathological featuresPredominance of colonic mucosal CD4+ T cells and high TNF-α secretionPredominance of colonic mucosal CD8+ T cells
Time to onset after first infusion1 month2–4 months
Time to resolution of GI irAE0.5–1.6 months1.1–4.2 months
Response rate to corticosteroids80%80%
  • CTLA-4, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4; irAE, immune-related adverse effects; PD-1, programmed death-1 TNF. tumour necrosis factor.