Table 2

Summary of studies associating faecal microbiota profiles with frailty

Ref. (country of study cohort)Young adultsElderlyDetermination of frailty16S rRNA approachMain findings with increased frailty
Nr.Age range (years)Nr.Age range (years)
van Tongeren72(The Netherlands)2370–100Groningen Frailty IndicatorFISH↓lactobacilli/Enterococcus group
Bacteroides/Prevotella group
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii
Claesson77 (Ireland)1328–4617864–102Barthel Index and Functional Independence MeasurePyrosequencingRuminococcus CAG, ↓Prevotella
Oscillibacter CAG
Bacteroides CAG
O’Toole56 (Ireland)28264–102Barthel Index and Functional Independence MeasurePyrosequencing↓Alpha diversity
Jeffery60 (Ireland)1328–4637164–102Barthel Index and Functional Independence MeasurePyrosequencing↓Alpha diversity
↑Alpha diversity
Ticinesi61 (Italy)76 multimorbid71–97Rockwood Frailty IndexIllumina MiSeq≈ Microbial richness
↑Unclassified member of Clostridiaceae 1  family
2565–87↑Unclassified member of Lachnospiraceae family
Oscillospira, ↑Peptococcus, ↑Porphyromonas
Fonticella, ↑Prevotella
Jackson53 (UK)728 (42–86)*Rockwood Frailty IndexIllumina MiSeq↓Microbial diversity and richness
↓A subset of Lachnospiraceae OTUs
Faecalibacterium, ↓Faecalibacterium prausnitzii
Eubacterium,↑Eggerthella, ↑Eubacterium dolichum
Eggerthella lenta,
↑13 Enterobacteriaceae OTUs
Maffei55 (USA)85 (43–79)*34-item frailty indexIllumina MiSeq↓Microbial richness
Paraprevotella, ↓Sutterella
↓Rikenellaceae family OTU
Coprobacillu, ↑Dialister
↑TM7 candidate-phylum OTU
  • *Studies did not report on the definition of young adult, elderly and centenarian.

  • Nr, number of subjects; CAG, coabundance groups; FISH, fluorescence in situ hybridisation; OTU, operational taxonomic unit; increased Barthel index indicates decreased frailty; increased functional independence measure indicates decreased frailty; ↓, significant decrease; ↑, significant increase; ≈, not significantly different.