Table 4

Cox regression of the association of gFOBT result with causes of death adjusted for gender, age, deprivation and medicine  prescribing

NegativePositive
HR (95% CI)P values
4A. Outcome is CRC cancer mortality
N (mortality rate per 1000 person years)431 (0.35)84 (3.42)
 Model 1 (univariable positive vs negative result)10.0 (7.94 to 12.7)<0.0001
 Model 2 (positive vs negative result, adjusted for gender, age and SIMD)7.76 (6.11 to 9.84)<0.0001
 Model 3 (as model 2+adjusted for prescribing for aspirin)7.76 (6.12 to 9.85)<0.0001
 Model 4 (as model 2+adjusted for prescribing for medicines that can cause bleeding)7.79 (6.13 to 9.89)<0.0001
4B. Outcome is all-cause mortality
N (mortality rate per 1000 person years)12 630 (10.12)594 (24.25)
 Model 1 (univariable positive vs negative result)2.43 (2.23 to 2.63)<0.0001
 Model 2 (positive vs negative result, adjusted for gender, age and SIMD)1.80 (1.66 to 1.96)<0.0001
 Model 3 (as model 2+adjusted for prescribing for aspirin)1.80 (1.66 to 1.96)<0.0001
 Model 4 (as model 2+adjusted for prescribing for medicines that can cause bleeding)1.76 (1.62 to 1.91)<0.0001
4C. Outcome is all-cause mortality excluding CRC
N (mortality rate per 1000 person years)12 199 (9.80)510 (21.20)
 Model 1 (univariable positive vs negative result)2.18 (1.99 to 2.39)<0.0001
 Model 2 (positive vs negative result, adjusted for gender, age and SIMD)1.63 (1.49 to 1.78)<0.0001
 Model 3 (as model 2+adjusted for prescribing for aspirin)1.62 (1.49 to 1.78)<0.0001
 Model 4 (as model 2+adjusted for prescribing for medicines that can cause bleeding)1.58 (1.45 to 1.73)<0.0001
4D. Outcome is all circulatory disease mortality
N (mortality rate per 1000 person years)3430 (2.75)128 (5.23)
 Model 1 (univariable positive vs negative result)1.92 (1.61 to 2.29)<0.0001
 Model 2 (positive vs negative result, adjusted for gender, age and SIMD)1.33 (1.12 to 1.59)0.002
 Model 3 (as model 2+adjusted for prescribing for aspirin)1.33 (1.11 to 1.59)0.002
 Model 4 (as model 2+adjusted for prescribing for medicines that can cause bleeding)1.28 (1.07 to 1.53)0.007
4E. Outcome is respiratory disease mortality
N (mortality rate per 1000 person years)1238 (0.99)68 (2.78)
 Model 1 (univariable positive vs negative result)2.85 (2.23 to 3.63)<0.0001
 Model 2 (positive vs negative result, adjusted for gender, age and SIMD)2.02 (1.58 to 2.59)<0.0001
 Model 3 (as model 2+adjusted for prescribing for aspirin)2.02 (1.58 to 2.58)<0.0001
 Model 4 (as model 2+adjusted for prescribing for medicines that can cause bleeding)1.96 (1.53 to 2.51)<0.0001
4F. Outcome is digestive disease mortality
N (mortality rate per 1000 person years)554 (0.44)49 (2.00)
 Model 1 (univariable positive vs negative result)4.56 (3.40 to 6.10)<0.0001
 Model 2 (positive vs negative result, adjusted for gender, age and SIMD)3.46 (2.58 to 4.64)<0.0001
 Model 3(as model 2+adjusted for prescribing for aspirin)3.46 (2.58 to 4.64)<0.0001
 Model 4 (as model 2+adjusted for prescribing for medicines that can cause bleeding)3.36 (2.50 to  4.51)<0.0001
4G. Outcome is mortality from neuropsychological conditions
N (mortality rate per 1000 person years)864 (0.69)37 (1.51)
 Model 1 (univariable positive vs negative result)2.23 (1.60 to 3.09)<0.0001
 Model 2 (positive vs negative result, adjusted for gender, age and SIMD)1.68 (1.20 to 2.34)0.003
 Model 3 (as model 2+adjusted for prescribing for aspirin)1.67 (1.20 to 2.34) 0.003
 Model 4 (as model 2+adjusted for prescribing for medicines that can cause bleeding)1.66 (1.19 to 2.32)0.003
4H. Outcome is mortality from external factors. Note: in this case, the relationship between a positive test result and external factors as a cause of death did not remain significant when adjusted for gender, age and deprivation
N (mortality rate per 1000 person years)309 (0.35)15 (0.61)
 Model 1 (univariable positive vs negative result)2.48 (1.48 to 4.17)0.004
 Model 2 (positive vs negative result, adjusted for gender, age and SIMD)1.68 (0.964 to 2.93)0.067
4I. Outcome is blood and endocrine disease mortality
N (mortality rate per 1000 person years)308 (0.25)17 (0.69)
 Model 1 (univariable positive vs negative result)2.86 (1.75 to 4.65)<0.0001
 Model 2 (positive vs negative result, adjusted for gender, age and SIMD)2.15 (1.32 to 3.51)0.002
 Model 3 (as model 2+adjusted for prescribing for aspirin)2.15 (1.31 to 3.51)0.002
 Model 4 (as model 2+adjusted for prescribing for drugs that can cause bleeding)2.06 (1.26 to 3.36)0.004
4J. Outcome is non-CRC mortality
N (mortality rate per 1000 person years)5040 (4.03)176 (7.19)
 Model 1 (univariable positive vs negative result)1.80 (1.54 to 2.09)<0.0001
 Model 2 (positive vs negative result, adjusted for gender, age and SIMD)1.41 (1.21 to 1.65)<0.0001
 Model 3 (as model 2+adjusted for prescribing for aspirin)1.41 (1.22 to 1.65)<0.0001
 Model 4 (as model 2+adjusted for prescribing for medicines that can cause bleeding)1.40 (1.20 to 1.63)<0.0001
4K. Outcome is mortality from ‘other’ cause
N (mortality rate per 1000 person years)422 (0.34)20 (0.82)
 Model 1 (univariable positive vs negative result)2.45 (1.57 to 3.84)<0.0001
 Model 2 (positive vs negative result, adjusted for gender, age and SIMD)1.76 (1.11 to 2.79) 0.02
 Model 3 (as model 2+adjusted for prescribing for aspirin)1.76 (1.11 to 2.79) 0.02
 Model 4 (as model 2+adjusted for prescribing for medicines that can cause bleeding)1.69 (1.07 to 2.69) 0.03
  • Results are expressed as HR derived from mortality rates (per 1000 person years) by test result.

  • CRC, colorectal cancer; gFOBT, guaiac faecal occult blood test; SIMD, Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation.