Table 1

Ageing-associated changes in alpha diversity of faecal microbiota in elderly and centenarians

Ref.
(country of study cohort)
Young adultsElderlyGroup being comparedMicrobiota profiling*Elderly†Centenarians‡
Nr.Age range (years)Nr.Age range (years)DiversityRichnessDiversityRichness
Zwielehner49 (Austria)1718–3117 institutional78–94Young adults vs elderlyPCR-DGGE, qPCR, clone librariesn.r.n.a.n.a.
Biagi42 (Italy)2025–404359–78Young adults vs elderly vs centenariansPhylogenetic microarray and qPCRn.r.n.r.
2199-104
Kong58 (China)4724–645465–83Nonagenarians and centenarians vs young adults and elderlyIllumina MiSeqn.r.n.r.
6790–102
Biagi43 (Italy)1522–481565–75Young adults vs elderly vs centenariansIllumina MiSeqn.r.n.r.
3999–109
Wang59 (China)1680–99Elderly vs centenariansIllumina MiSeqn.a.n.a.≈ or ↑§
8100–108
O’Toole56 (Ireland)28264–102Age associationPyrosequencingn.r.n.r.n.r.
Falony52 (Belgium)1106 (19–85)¶Adults<40 years vs middle-aged 40-59 years vs elderly>60 yearsIllumina MiSeqn.r.n.a.n.a.
Odamaki51 (Japan)367 (0–104)¶Age associationIllumina MiSeq
Jackson53 (UK)728 (42–86)¶Age associationIllumina MiSeqn.a.n.a.
Bian54 (China)1095 (3–100+)¶Age associationIllumina MiSeqn.a.n.r.n.r.
Maffei55 (USA)85 (43–79)¶Age associationIllumina MiSeqn.a.n.a.
  • *16S rRNA (gene)-based.

  • †Microbiota comparison between elderly and young adults.

  • ‡Microbiota comparison between centenarians and elderly/young adults.

  • § Depending on which subgroup of elderly were compared.

  • ¶Studies did not report on the definition of young adult, elderly and centenarian.

  • Nr, number of subjects; centenarian, people aged >100 years; nonagenarian, people aged 90–100 years; PCR-DGGE, PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis; qPCR, quantitative PCR; ↓, significant decrease; ↑, significant increase; ≈, not significantly different; n.a, not available; n.r, not reported.