Table 1

Clinical and pathological characteristics of 595 patients with PCs and correlation with KRAS, GNAS and VHL status

Patient or cyst characteristicsTotal KRAS and/or GNAS p Value VHL p Value
Wild typeMutantWild typeMutant
Gender n=595
Woman341181 (53%)160 (47%)0.246308 (90%)33 (10%)0.067
Man254122 (48%)132 (52%)240 (94%)14 (6%)
Mean age (range) (years)65.0 (15–93)60.7 (15–90)69.4 (34–93)<0.00165.2 (15–93)62.3 (33–81)0.122
Symptomatic presentation198112 (57%)86 (43%)0.056189 (95%)9 (5%)0.036
Location n=626
Head, neck and uncinate320137 (43%)183 (57%)<0.001299 (92%)21 (7%)0.368
 Body and tail306181 (59%)125 (41%)280 (92%)26 (8%)
 Mean cyst size (range) (cm)2.7 (0.8–21.0)3.0 (0.8–21.0)2.4 (0.8–11.0)<0.0012.7 (0.8–21.0)3.2 (1.0–8.9)0.060
Cyst multifocality28195 (34%)186 (66%)<0.001270 (96%)11 (4%)0.002
Increased fluid viscosity31985 (27%)234 (73%)<0.001316 (99%)3 (1%)<0.001
CEA >192 ng/mL (n=452)*14638 (26%)108 (74%)<0.001146 (100%)0 (0%)<0.001
Satisfactory cytological adequacy251117 (47%)134 (53%)0.088236 (94%)15 (6%)0.279
Diagnostic pathology n=102 n=43 n=59 n=100 n=2
Adenocarcinoma arising in an IPMN130 (0%)13 (100%)13 (100%)0 (0%)
IPMN with low-grade/high-grade dysplasia430 (0%)43 (100%)<0.001†43 (100%)0 (0%)
MCN with low-grade/high-grade dysplasia107 (70%)3 (30%)10 (100%)0 (0%)
Serous cystadenoma33 (100%)0 (0%)1 (33%)2 (67%)<0.001‡
Cystic PanNET99 (100%)0 (0%)9 (100%)0 (0%)
Acinar cell cystadenoma11 (100%)0 (0%)1 (100%)0 (0%)
Pseudocyst1717 (100%)0 (0%)17 (100%)0 (0%)
Retention cyst22 (100%)0 (0%)2 (100%)0 (0%)
Lymphoepithelial cyst22 (100%)0 (0%)2 (100%)0 (0%)
Epidermoid cyst11 (100%)0 (0%)1 (100%)0 (0%)
Squamoid cyst11 (100%)0 (0%)1 (100%)0 (0%)
  • *Sufficient PCF for CEA analysis was available for 127 (80%) PCs.

  • †Follow-up NGS testing for KRAS and GNAS was performed for 24 (15%) PCs.

  • ‡p Value corresponds to SCA versus other PCs.

  • CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen; IPMN, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm; MCN, mucinous cystic neoplasm; PanNET, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour; PC, pancreatic cyst; PCF, pancreatic cyst fluid; SCA, serous cystadenomas.