Table 3

Urine metabolites changing with intake of whole grain compared with refined grain (values are median (25%–75%) of fold changes calculated as the relative abundance at endpoint divided by the relative abundance at baseline, n=48)

MetaboliteMethodRefined grain fold changeWhole grain fold changeFDR-corrected
p value*
Correlation to whole grain intake†
Rhop Value
DHPPA-glucuronideUPLC-MS0.67 (0.41–0.87)1.48 (0.93–2.30)<0.00010.69<0.0001
2-aminophenol-sulfateUPLC-MS0.83 (0.46–1.39)1.92 (0.81–3.53)0.0030.51<0.0001
Pyrocatechol-glucuronideUPLC-MS0.88 (0.60–1.32)1.57 (0.87–2.23)0.0070.33<0.001
Pyrocatechol-sulfateUPLC-MS1.01 (0.74–1.54)1.64 (0.94–2.16)0.0360.37<0.001
3-methyladipic acidGC-MS0.76 (0.54–0.97)1.11 (0.87–1.34)0.0040.200.053
  • See online supplementary table S13 for identification details.

  • *Linear mixed model adjusted for age and gender followed by correction for multiple testing by the Benjamini-Hochberg approach.

  • †Spearman’s Rank correlation between metabolites and whole grain intake.

  • DHPPA, 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)−1-propanoic acid; GC-MS, gas chromatography mass spectrometry.; UPLC-MS, ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.