Table 1

Total mean daily intake of energy and macronutrient at baseline and during the whole grain and refined grain diet periods as well as intake of provided food products (values are presented as mean±SD, n=50)

BaselineRefined grain dietWhole grain dietp Value
Total daily intake*
 Energy (MJ/day)9.36±2.299.47±2.119.22±2.330.78
 Carbohydrate (E%)44.6±5.2a 49.4±5.1b 48.5±5.4b <0.001
 Fat (E%)35.9±4.9a 29.6±5.4b 30.0±5.6b <0.001
 Protein (E%)14.6±2.0a 15.5±2.1b 15.3±2.1b 0.012
 Dietary fibre (g/day)23±9a 21±7a 33±10b <0.001
 Whole grain (g/day)68±45a 13±10c 179±50b <0.001
 Gluten (g/day)12.3±4.1a 17.8±3.8b 17.8±4.9b <0.001
Intake from provided products†
 Provided products (g/day)-255±53244±500.074
 Whole grain (g/day)-6.0±4.8157.9±35.0<0.001
 Dietary fibre (g/day)-10.4±2.423.3±4.8<0.001
 Energy (MJ/day)-3.17±0.672.79±0.59<0.001
 Energy density (KJ/g)-12.4±0.511.5±0.6<0.001
 Alkylresorcinols (mg/day)‡-42±1292±20<0.001
Biomarker of whole grain intake
 Plasma alkylresorcinols (nmol/L)§167 (137–198)a 134 (107–161)a 380 (255–505)b <0.0001
  • *Daily energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by 4-day precoded food diaries at baseline and after each intervention period. Differences between diets were assessed by a one-way analysis of variance with Tukey’s multiple comparison test. Different superscripts (a and b)  indicate statistical differences within rows (p<0.05).

  • †Intake of study products was assessed by daily registrations in study diaries during both treatment periods. Differences between the two intervention diets were assessed by paired t-tests.

  • ‡Note that two of the provided products for the refined grain intervention were relatively high in alkylresorcinols, however, still lower than the equivalent whole grain products (see online supplementary table S1).

  • §Values are presented as mean (CI 95%).