Table 4

Factors for risk stratification for esophageal and gastric cancer before and during endoscopy

DiseasesBefore endoscopy
(clinical information)
During endoscopy
(endoscopic finding)
Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)Male gender
Ethnic background
Alcohol drinking (especially with face flushing)
Smoking
History and concomitant SCC
Melanosis
Multiple Lugol voiding lesions
Barrett’s adenocarcinomaMale gender
Caucasian ethnic background
Smoking
Length of Barrett’s oesophagus
Lesions at the right upper quadrant near the oesophago-gastric junction (OGJ)
Gastric cancerMale gender
Family history
Ethnic background
History of oestrogen receptors (ER) of gastric cancer
Helicobacter pylori infection (especially with mucosal atrophy and/or intestinal metaplasia)
Endoscopic atrophy (Kimura-Takemoto)
Endoscopic finding of intestinal metaplasia (IM)