Table 1

Univariate and multivariate analyses of postoperative recurrence, metastasis and overall survival in patients with HCC (n=296)

Clinical variablesRecurrenceMetastasisOverall survival
Univariate analysisMultivariate analysisUnivariate analysisMultivariate analysisUnivariate analysisMultivariate analysis
Rec (+) n=144Rec (−) n=152P valueHR
(95% CI)
P valueMetastasis (+) n=61Metastasis (−) n=235P valueHR
(95% CI)
P valueDeath n=84Alive n=212P valueHR
(95% CI)
P value
Age (years)57.6±9.955.7±9.70.09458.0±9.956.3±9.70.22457.0±11.056.5±9.40.715
Male sex118 (81.9%)131 (86.2%)0.31846 (75.5%)203 (86.4%)0.0370.506
(0.271 to 0.945)
0.03269 (82.1%)180 (84.9%)0.558
Cause of HCC0.5260.9740.254
 Alcohol1413521818
 HBV1091255018463171
 HCV1694211015
 NAFLD231405
 Undetermined331533
AFP (ng/mL)3290±19 0173011±15 8820.8918684±31 6841710±10 7860.0055930±25 8402043±12 5970.084
PIVKA II (mAU/mL)1580±89152299±10 6340.5494150±15 0091365±78430.0573067±12 6791500±84040.236
PT (%)98.3±13.898.4±19.20.96796.1±14.599.0±17.30.23194.3±12.9100.0±17.90.008
PLT (103/mm3)159±71149±730.233165±76150±710.152145±69.7157±73.30.224
ALT (IU/L)46.0±33.336.6±19.90.00335.7±19.042.6±29.30.0830.982
(0.968 to 0.996)
0.01441.5±25.141.0±26.50.887
Albumin (g/dL)4.15±0.424.15±0.550.8434.06±0.434.18±0.500.1110.515
(0.302 to 0.879)
0.0153.9±0.44.3±0.5<0.0010.517
(0.355 to 0.752)
0.001
Total bilirubin (mg/dL)0.8±0.51.3±3.70.1320.9±0.61.1±3.00.5450.9±0.51.2±3.10.437
MELD score5.3±3.25.3±4.50.9154.8±3.35.5±4.10.1605.6±3.15.2±4.20.41
CTP (A/B)140/4140/120.05258/3222/130.85079/5201/110.780
Underlying liver disease (CH/LC)27/11736/1160.30027/11736/1160.30013/7150/1620.124
Tumour size (cm)5.1±3.04.0±3.6<0.0010.587
(0.394 to 0.875)
0.0096.3±3.94.0±3.0<0.0011.114
(1.058 to 1.173)
<0.0015.2±3.34.2±3.30.019
 <3 cm/>3 cm38/10682/70<0.00113/48107/1280.00125/5995/1170.017
Tumour number (single/multiple)123/11131/210.85054/7200/350.49572/12182/300.976
E-S grade (I–II/III–IV)59/9585/67<0.00114/47120/115<0.0010.499
(0.265 to 0.940)
0.03129/55105/1070.019
Microvascular invasion58/8631/121<0.0012.320
(1.618 to 3.327)
<0.00126/3563/1720.0162.123
(1.189 to 3.790)
0.01140/44105/107<0.0012.931
(1.886 to 4.554)
<0.001
Lymphovascular invasion37/10712/140<0.0011.856
(1.245 to 2.767)
0.00218/4331/2040.00217/6732/1800.286
Tumour satellites13/12116/1360.66510/5119/2160.0527/7722/1900.594
Resection margin4/1400/1520.0550/614/2310.5842/822/2100.319
Tumour capsule37/10732/1200.34518/4351/1840.19921/6348/1640.665
Tumour septum48/9656/960.52724/3780/1550.44031/5373/1390.668
TonEBP expression
  TonEBP in non-tumour
  (tNT 0/1)
48/9682/70<0.0010.566
(0.397 to 0.807)
0.00220/41110/1250.0490.513
(0.288 to 0.914)
0.02432/5298/1140.204
  TonEBP in tumour
  (tT 0/1)
29/11551/1010.00910/5170/1650.03615/6965/1470.0250.547
(0.311 to 0.754)
0.036
  • tNT0 and tNT1 are defined in figure 1I; tT0 and tT1 are defined in figure 1J. A multivariate analysis was carried out to identify the independent predictor for recurrence and survival using the Cox regression hazard model.

  • AFP, alpha-fetoprotein; ALT, alanine transaminase; CH, chronic hepatitis; CTP, Child-Turcotte-Pugh class; E-S grade, Edmondson-Steiner grade; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; LC, liver cirrhosis; MELD score, model for end-stage liver disease score; NAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; PIVKA II, protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II; PLT, platelet; PT, prothrombin time; Rec (+), recurrence; Rec (−), non-recurrence; TonEBP, TonEBP, tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein.