Table 3

Multivariate logistic analysis of risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and precursor lesions in the Endoscopic Screening for Esophageal Cancer in China (ESECC) trial in rural Hua County, China, 2012–2016

Variables*Severe dysplasia and aboveDysplasia and above
CaseNormalCrude OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted OR
(95% CI)†
CaseNormalCrude OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted OR
(95% CI)†
n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)
Age group (years)
 45–492 (1.77)3378 (22.44)RefRef56 (8.22)3325 (22.94)RefRef
 50–543 (2.65)2518 (16.73)2.01 (0.34 to 12.05)2.03 (0.34 to 12.22)62 (9.27)2459 (16.96)1.52 (1.06 to 2.20)1.55 (1.08 to 2.24)
 55–5922 (19.47)3338 (22.18)11.13 (2.62 to 47.38)10.88 (2.55 to 46.33)140 (20.93)3220 (22.21)2.63 (1.92 to 3.60)2.62 (1.91 to 3.59)
 60–6447 (41.59)3596 (23.89)22.08 (5.36 to 90.95)21.81 (5.29 to 89.91)229 (34.23)3414 (23.55)4.06 (3.01 to 5.46)4.07 (3.02 to 5.49)
 65–6939 (34.51)2221 (14.76)29.66 (7.15 to 122.95)29.15 (7.02 to 120.97)183 (27.35)2077 (14.33)5.33 (3.92 to 7.24)5.29 (3.89 to 7.19)
Ptrend<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
Family history of esophageal cancer
 093 (82.30)13 416 (89.14)RefRef572 (85.50)12 937 (89.25)RefRef
 113 (11.50)1332 (8.85)1.41 (0.79 to 2.52)1.49 (0.83 to 2.69)73 (10.91)1272 (8.78)1.30 (1.01 to 1.67)1.32 (1.02 to 1.70)
 25 (4.42)236 (1.57)3.06 (1.23 to 7.58)3.55 (1.42 to 8.92)14 (2.09)227 (1.57)1.39 (0.81 to 2.41)1.46 (0.84 to 2.53)
 >22 (1.77)67 (0.45)4.31 (1.04 to 17.84)4.67 (1.11 to 19.76)10 (1.49)59 (0.41)3.83 (1.95 to 7.53)4.00 (2.01 to 7.97)
Ptrend0.0020.001<0.001<0.001
Body mass index
 >2281 (71.68)12 278 (82.07)RefRef523 (78.65)11 836 (82.15)Ref
 ≤2232 (28.32)2682 (17.93)1.81 (1.20 to 2.73)1.64 (1.08 to 2.48)142 (21.35)2572 (17.85)1.25 (1.03 to 1.51)
Eating rapidly
 No10 (8.85)2358 (15.67)RefRef101 (15.10)2267 (15.64)Ref
 Yes103 (91.15)12 693 (84.33)1.91 (1.00 to 3.67)2.27 (1.18 to 4.37)568 (84.90)12 228 (84.36)1.04 (0.84 to 1.29)
Ingestion of leftovers
 ≤1 per week58 (51.33)9681 (64.32)RefRef388 (58.00)9351 (64.51)Ref
 >1 per week55 (48.67)5370 (35.68)1.71 (1.18 to 2.48)1.63 (1.13 to 2.37)281 (42.00)5144 (35.49)1.32 (1.12 to 1.54)
Coal stove for heating
 No68 (60.18)9545 (63.42)Ref380 (56.80)9233 (63.70)RefRef
 Yes45 (39.82)5506 (36.58)1.15 (0.79 to 1.67)289 (43.20)5262 (36.30)1.33 (1.14 to 1.56)1.33 (1.14 to 1.56)
Fume exposure in kitchen
 No23 (20.35)3912 (25.99)Ref141 (21.08)3794 (26.17)RefRef
 Yes90 (79.65)11 139 (74.01)1.37 (0.87 to 2.18)528 (78.92)10 701 (73.83)1.33 (1.10 to 1.60)1.25 (1.03 to 1.52)
  • *All variables were first evaluated by univariate logistic regression. Variables with P<0.25 were subjected to multivariate logistic regression models and the backward-selection method was used to select variables at a significant level of 0.05. Only significant variables remaining in the final multivariate logistic models are shown.

  • †Adjusted OR was derived from multivariate logistic analysis.

  • ‡Ptrend was obtained by treating the ordinal variable as a continuous variable.