Table 1

Selected characteristics* of the participants in the Endoscopic Screening for Esophageal Cancer in China (ESECC) trial in rural Hua County, China, 2012–2016

Variables†Screening armControl armP value
n (%)n (%)
n17 15116 797
Response rate (%)106.2103.6
Age
 Median (quartile)57(50; 62)57(50; 62)0.115
Gender
 Male8395 (48.9)8148 (48.5)0.419
 Female8756 (51.1)8649 (51.5)
Family history of esophageal cancer‡
 013 914 (89.2)15 230 (90.8)<0.001
 11370 (8.8)1326 (7.9)
 2248 (1.6)168 (1.0)
 >270 (0.4)40 (0.2)
Body mass index§
 Median (quartile)24.9 (22.8; 27.5)25.4 (23.2; 27.8)<0.001
Education
 Middle school or above6695 (42.9)7651 (45.6)<0.001
 Primary school or below8907 (57.1)9113 (54.4)
Marital status
 Married14 561 (93.3)15 798 (94.2)0.001
 Unmarried1041 (6.7)966 (5.8)
Family size§
 >210 094 (64.7)11 434 (68.2)<0.001
 ≤25502 (35.3)5326 (31.8)
Household income per capita§
 Median(quartile)3000(1500; 5000)2000(1250; 4000)<0.001
Cigarette smoking¶
 No10 158 (65.1)11 047 (65.9)0.135
 Yes5444 (34.9)5717 (34.1)
Alcohol drinking**
 No11 812 (75.7)12 738 (76.0)0.562
 Yes3790 (24.3)4026 (24.0)
Coal stove for heating
 No9877 (63.3)10 121 (60.4)<0.001
 Yes5725 (36.7)6643 (39.6)
Type of fuel used for cooking
 Only gas, electricity2839 (18.2)3058 (18.2)0.916
 Coal, firewood12 763 (81.8)13 706 (81.8)
Fume exposure in kitchen
 No4090 (26.2)6742 (40.2)<0.001
 Yes11 512 (73.8)10 022 (59.8)
Eating rapidly
 No2453 (15.7)3040 (18.1)<0.001
 Yes13 149 (84.3)13 724 (81.9)
High temperature food preference
 No1798 (11.5)2246 (13.4)<0.001
 Yes13 804 (88.5)14 518 (86.6)
Ingestion of preserved food
≤ 1  per week9984 (64.0)11 075 (66.1)<0.001
> 1  per week5618 (36.0)5689 (33.9)
Ingestion of leftovers
≤ 1  per week10 012 (64.2)9815 (58.5)<0.001
> 1  per week5590 (35.8)6949 (41.5)
  • *Variables that were not associated with oesophageal precursor lesions in univariate logistic regression analysis are not shown, including job type, pesticide exposure, main source of drinking water, tea drinking, regularity of eating, intake of vegetables, fruit, meat, milk and eggs, intake of hard food, spicy food and fried food.

  • †Age and gender were compared for all individuals enrolled, but analysis were limited to individuals who completed the interview for other variables.

  • ‡Number of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cases in the immediate family and relatives within three generations.

  • §Missing values were not included in the analysis.

  • ¶Cigarette smoking was defined as a smoking history of at least 18 packs per year.

  • **Alcohol drinking was defined as drinking Chinese liquor (containing >40% alcohol) at least twice a week for ≥12 months (consumption of other kinds of alcoholic beverages such as beer and red wine is very rare in the study area).