Table 2

Clinical and demographic characteristics of patients included in the study

CharacteristicsIFX non-responders*IFX responders*
Cohort validation 1—biopsy IHC
 Biopsy number812
 IBD type (CD/UC/IBDU)3/4/18/4/0
 Analysed biopsy (normal/inflamed)3/53/9
 Gender (M/F)3/53/9
 Age (years)40.3±12.547.2±19.1
 Disease duration (years)12.5±4.317±4.2
 Age at diagnosis (A1/A2/A3/NA)†1/3/0/40/4/4/4
 Location (L1/L2/L3/NA) for CD‡0/1/1/10/3/3/2
 Location (E1/E2/E3/NA) for UC§0/1/2/10/0/3/1
 Behaviour (B1/B2/B3/NA) for CD¶0/0/2/12/0/1/5
 Perianal disease (yes/no)3/51/11
 Biopsy location**2/0/1/1/2/0/23/2/2/1/2/0/2
 Concurrent therapy (steroids/thiopurine/antibiotics)††1/2/02/1/0
 Past anti-TNFα (adalimumab) exposure (yes/no)2/61/11
 Time range prior to treatment (month)0 (0–3)7 (0–93)
Cohort validation 2—biopsy IHC
 Medical centre (RHHC/TASMC)6/1715/14
 Patient number2329
 IBD type (CD/UC)9/1420/9
 Analysed biopsy (normal/inflamed)1/222/27
 Gender (M/F)11/1212/17
 Age (years)44.3±11.734±13
 Disease duration (years)14.8±9.69.6±7.8
 Age at diagnosis (A1/A2/A3)†3/13/74/22/3
 Location (L1/L2/L3) for CD‡0/3/60/9/11
 Location (E1/E2/E3) for UC§0/7/70/3/6
 Behaviour (B1/B2/B3) for CD¶7/0/216/4/0
 Perianal disease (yes/no)3/2010/19
 Biopsy location**2/0/6/9/5/12/0/3/5/0/4
 Concurrent therapy (steroids/thiopurine/antibiotics)††10/5/213/12/2
 Past anti-TNFα (adalimumab) exposure (yes/no)1/220/29
 Time range prior to treatment (median month)1 (0–3)2 (0–10)
Cohort 3—blood gene expression
 Patient number517
 IBD type (CD/UC)5/017/0
 Gender (M/F)2/311/6
 Age (years)40±14.936.1±13.6
 Disease duration (years)10.4±98.5±8.9
 Age at diagnosis (A1/A2/A3)†2/2/11/13/3
 Location (L1/L2/L3)‡1/1/38/1/8
 Behaviour (B1/B2/B3)§1/2/25/7/5
 Perianal disease (yes/no)3/23/14
 Concurrent therapy (steroids/thiopurine/antibiotics)2/5/09/11/0
 HBI‡‡7.2±8.6 (0–22)3.6±3.5 (0–13)
 Calprotectin‡‡1765 (30–1800)604 (30–1800)
 CRP‡‡24.8±29.5 (3.1–83)17.8±29.3 (1.6–126)
  • *According to response classification as detailed in ‘Methods’.

  • †Montreal classification—age <16 years/17–40 years/>40 years.

  • ‡Montreal classification—ileal/colonic/ileocolonic.

  • §Montreal classification—proctitis/left-side/pancolitis.

  • ¶Montreal classification—inflammatory/structuring/penetrating.

  • **Ascending colon/transverse colon/descending colon/sigmoid/rectum/non-informed colonic segment/small intestine.

  • ††For cohorts 1–2—at the time when biopsy was taken. For cohort 3—concurrent with IFX.

  • ‡‡At baseline.

  • CD, Crohn’s disease; CRP, C reactive protein; F, female; IBDU, IBD unclassified; IFX, infliximab; IHC, immunohistochemistry; M, male; RHCC, Rambam Health Care Campus; TASMC, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center; TNFα, tumour necrosis factor alpha.