Table 3

Contingency analyses to identify effect of patient state and trait variables on responses evoked by 5 Hz EFS in the ascending colon (n=109)

VariablesMuscle relaxationP value
No (n=49)Yes (n=60)
Medications
 Regular laxative use3 (6.1%)6 (10.0%)0.51
 Opiates7 (14.3%)8 (13.3%)0.89*
 NSAIDs11 (22.4%)13 (21.7%)0.92*
 Anticholinergic drugs†5 (10.2%)*11 (18.3%)0.28
 Calcium channel blocker8 (16.3%)13 (21.7%)0.48*
 Diuretics13 (26.5%)13 (21.7%)0.55*
 Beta blocker9 (18.4%)11 (18.3%)1.00*
 Anti-arrhythmics01 (1.7%)1.00
 Inhalers1 (2.0%)8 (13.3%)0.04
 5-alpha reductase inhibitor3 (6.1%)00.09
 Cation-containing agents11 (22.4%)16 (26.7%)0.61*
 Bisphosphonates2 (4.1%)4 (6.7%)0.69
 Anticonvulsants01 (1.7%)1.00
 Alpha blockers‡10 (20.4%)2 (3.3%)0.01
Medical history
 Diverticular disease1 (2.0%)5 (8.3%)0.22
 Previous abdominal or pelvic surgery12 (24.5%)14 (23.3%)0.89*
 Conditions affecting central nervous system7 (14.3%)10 (16.7%)0.73*
 Psychiatric conditions6 (12.2%)4 (6.7%)0.34
 Diabetes mellitus10 (20.4%)9 (15.0%)0.46*
 Any thyroid conditions2 (4.1%)5 (8.3%)0.46
 Cardiovascular conditions12 (24.5%)14 (23.3%)0.89*
  • The table shows the numbers of patients (with percentage of total) with each factor.

  • *Contingency comparisons are shown using Fisher’s exact test or χ2 test (due to multiple comparisons, p≤0.01 considered statistically significant).

  • †Medications from different category but with similar action on certain receptor type.

  • ‡Includes those used for cardiovascular and urinary indications.

  • EFS, electrical field stimulation; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.