Table 2

Incidence rates* and HRs of PD for the total sample and subgroups

Types of AnalysisNot exposed to GIIsExposed to GIIsCox regression (ref.: not exposed to GIIs)
EventsPerson yearsIREventsPerson yearsIRCr. HR95% CIAdj. HR95% CI
Overall†50201 704 0492.951175250 5734.691.421.33 to 1.521.421.33 to 1.52
Men‡2327724 3883.2149393 8965.251.481.34 to 1.631.481.34 to 1.63
Women‡2693979 6612.75682156 6774.351.381.27 to 1.501.381.27 to 1.50
Age <70 years§1062862 5011.23162114 1271.421.170.99 to 1.381.170.99 to 1.38
Age ≥70 years§3958841 5484.701013136 4467.421.251.04 to 1.491.251.04 to 1.49
Without COPD¶40511 438 1042.82858191 5984.481.651.53 to 1.781.431.33 to 1.54
With COPD¶969265 9453.6431758 9755.381.511.33 to 1.721.401.23 to 1.59
Without SRC¶46501 613 3782.881065230 0444.631.661.55 to 1.781.401.35 to 1.55
With SRC¶37090 6714.0811020 5295.361.931.59 to 2.331.200.96 to 1.48
  • N=228 485; PD cases=6195.

  • *Per 1000 person years.

  • †HRs were adjusted for gender, age, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular diseases, hypertension, ischaemic heart diseases, hypercholesterolaemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and intracranial injury.

  • ‡HRs were adjusted for age, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular diseases, hypertension, ischaemic heart diseases, hypercholesterolaemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and intracranial injury.

  • §HRs were adjusted for gender, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular diseases, hypertension, ischaemic heart diseases, hypercholesterolaemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and intracranial injury.

  • ¶HRs were adjusted for gender, age, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular diseases, hypertension, ischaemic heart diseases, hypercholesterolaemia and intracranial injury,

  • Adj. HR, adjusted HR; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Cr. HR, crude HR; GII, GI infections; IR, incidence rate; PD, Parkinson’s disease; SRC, smoking-related cancers.