Table 1

Characteristics of study participants

Vegetarian
(n=23)
Omnivore
(n=34)
P values
Female (n (%))14 (65)24 (71)
Age (years)34.13±1.7030.18±1.300.0665
BMI (kg/m2)22.40±0.5521.81±0.570.4793
Genotype FMO3-SNP (n (%))
 Glu158Lys – AAG6 (26.1)8 (23.5)
 Glu308Gly – GGG6 (26.1)8 (23.5)
Plasma
 Glucose-AC (mg/dL)69.39±2.2075.41±1.910.0459
 AST (U/L)11.30±1.03615.29±1.190.0211
 ALT (U/L)7.22±0.9412.91±2.380.0627
 BUN (mg/dL)9.57±0.6511.63±0.500.0145
 Creatinine (mg/dL)0.55±0.030.60±0.020.2041
 T-cholesterol (mg/dL)140.50±4.27174.90±5.23<0.0001
 Triglyceride (mg/dL)89.13±11.3188.32±10.070.9584
 LDL-C (mg/dL)75.13±4.2597.44±4.640.0014
 hsCRP (mg/dL)0.06±0.010.18±0.090.2766
 TMAO (µM)1.87±0.213.54±0.960.1618
 Carnitine (µM)34.72±3.0763.46±5.08<0.0001
Urine
 TMAO (nmol/mmol Cr)33.98±3.4968.13±20.700.1843
 Carnitine (nmol/mmol Cr)2.52±0.6415.37±6.350.1035
  • *The p value is from the comparison between vegetarian and omnivore volunteers using Student’s t-test. Values are the mean±SEM.

  • AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; BMI, body mass index; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; Cr, creatinine; FMO3, flavin monooxygenase; hsCRP, high-sensitivity C reactive protein; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TMAO, trimethylamine N-oxide.