Table 2

Effects of dietary interventions on plasma proinflammatory markers (n=217)

Proinflammatory factors*Lower-fat diet
(n=73)
Moderate-fat diet
(n=73)
Higher-fat diet
(n=71)
P value†
hs-CRP (mg/L)
 baseline0.3±0.60.4±0.40.3±0.4
 month 60.2±0.40.3±0.30.4±0.8
 change−0.1±0.3b 0.0±0.3b 0.1±0.4a <0.001
IL-6 (pg/mL)
 baseline29.8±24.534.5±30.130.7±35.5
 month 626.2±28.224.4±21.020.4±25.9
 change−5.2±42.1−7.4±31.4−1.1±49.80.62
IL-8 (pg/mL)
 baseline52.6±34.952.6±36.455.2±53.9
 month 660.8±42.155.9±35.857.8±44.8
 change2.4±54.90.0±40.8−6.6±46.70.67
IL-1β (pg/mL)
 baseline2.0±1.61.7±1.31.9±1.3
 month 61.1±1.31.3±1.21.0±1.2
 change−0.8±1.7−0.5±1.5−0.8±1.60.73
TNF-α (pg/mL)
 baseline53.3±52.962.7±48.766.5±71.4
 month 672.0±75.168.1±59.666.2±76.4
 change13.3±65.84.9±66.42.8±84.50.55
LTB4 (pg/mL)
 baseline162.1±431.0195.5±366.7176.6±266.4
 month 6127.4±166.8207.6±331.4198.4±184.9
 change−47.2±128.7b 5.7±179.0a −4.5±154.9a 0.003
TXB2 (ng/mL)
 baseline4.0±6.34.1±5.55.1±7.9
 month 62.7±5.84.1 (8.8)4.4 (7.8)
 change−1.1±2.9b −0.3±4.7a 0.3±5.7a <0.001
PGE2 (ng/mL)
 baseline1.3±1.61.0±1.71.3±1.3
 month 60.6±1.21.2±1.80.9±2.3
 change−0.4±1.0b −0.2±0.8a 0.0±1.4a 0.007
  • *Data are presented as median±IQR owing to non-normal distribution.

  • †Comparisons among the three groups were conducted using the Kruskal-Wallis test. For significant inflammation markers, all pairwise comparisons were tested using Wilcoxon test and followed by Bonferroni adjustment. Values with different letters in each row differ significantly. The letter ‘a’ represents the highest value. 

  • hs-CRP, high sensitivity C-reactive protein; IL, interleukin; IQR, interquartile range; LTB4, leukotriene B4; PGE2, prostaglandin E2; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor-α; TXB2, thromboxane B2.