Table 1

Univariate and multivariable analyses in the derivation cohort

VariableTotal cohort
(n=9838) No.
Gastric cancer
(n=267) No. (%)
Non-gastric cancer
(n=9571) No. (%)
P value*Adjusted OR
(95% CI)†
P value
Age, years<0.001
 40–49274122 (8.2)2719 (28.4)Reference
 50–59345779 (29.6)3378 (35.3)2.77 (1.72 to 4.47)<0.001
 60–69264094 (35.2)2546 (26.6)4.31 (2.69 to 6.89)<0.001
 >69100072 (27.0)928 (9.7)8.67 (5.32 to 14.13)<0.001
 Mean (SD)56.2 (9.6)62.9 (9.5)56.1 (9.5)<0.001
Body mass index‡
 Mean (SD)22.89 (2.85)22.34 (2.91)22.91 (2.85)0.075
PG I, ng/mL0.048
 ≤41.9259725 (9.4)572 (6.0)
 41.93–277.008651223 (83.5)8428 (88.1)
 >277.0059019 (7.1)571 (6.0)
 Median (range)109.30 (927.99)129.30 (532.39)108.89 (927.99)0.001
PG II, ng/mL0.008
 ≤2.7846611 (4.1)455 (4.8)
 2.79–37.238806229 (85.8)8577 (89.6)
 >37.2356627 (10.1)539 (5.6)
 Median (range)9.20 (856.66)13.90 (215.45)9.10 (856.66)<0.001
PG I/II ratio<0.001
 ≥3.899235227 (85.0)9008 (94.1)Reference
 <3.8960340 (15.0)563 (5.9)2.02 (1.41 to 2.90)<0.001
 Median (range)11.84 (869.13)8.38 (103.33)11.95 (869.13)<0.001
G-17, pmol/L
 ≤1.49281234 (12.7)2778 (29.0)Reference
 1.50–5.70332083 (31.1)3237 (33.8)2.00 (1.33 to 3.00)0.001
 >5.703706150 (56.2)3556 (37.2)2.84 (1.93 to 4.17)<0.001
 Median (range)3.53 (367.06)6.89 (99.99)3.48 (367.06)<0.001
Sex<0.001
 Female495578 (29.2)4877 (51.0)Reference
 Male4883189 (70.8)4694 (49.0)2.52 (1.92 to 3.30)<0.001
Anti-H. pylori IgG, EIU0.028
 Negative (<34)5549133 (49.8)5416 (56.6)Reference
 Positive (≥34)4289134 (50.2)4155 (43.4)1.26 (1.12 to 1.62)0.046
Family history0.856
 No8657234 (87.6)8423 (88.0)
 Yes118133 (12.4)1148 (12.0)
Smoking<0.001
 No7671178 (66.7)7493 (78.3)
 Yes216789 (33.3)2078 (21.7)
Alcohol drinking0.063
 No8220212 (79.4)8008 (83.7)
 Yes161855 (20.6)1563 (16.3)
High-salt diet0.005
 No5859137 (51.3)5722 (59.8)
 Yes3979130 (48.7)3849 (40.2)
Pickled food<0.001
 Occasional8070196 (73.4)7874 (82.3)Reference
 Regular176871 (26.6)1697 (17.7)1.49 (1.10 to 2.01)0.010
Fried food<0.001
 Occasional9130231 (86.5)8899 (93.0)Reference
 Regular70836 (13.5)672 (7.0)1.71 (1.15 to 2.54)0.008
Smoked food0.064
 Occasional9251244 (91.4)9007 (94.1)
 Regular58723 (8.6)564 (5.9)
Barbecue food0.663
 Occasional9307251 (94.0)9056 (94.6)
 Regular53116 (6.0)515 (5.4)
Overnight leftovers0.202
 Occasional7083183 (68.5)6900 (72.1)
 Regular275584 (31.5)2671 (27.9)
Red meat§0.806
 Occasional4533125 (46.8)4408 (46.1)
 Regular5305142 (53.2)5163 (53.9)
White meat§0.593
 Occasional5517154 (57.7)5363 (56.0)
 Regular4321113 (42.3)4208 (44.0)
Green vegetables0.038
 Occasional214472 (27.0)2072 (21.6)
 Regular7694195 (73.0)7499 (78.4)
Fresh fruits0.009
 Occasional4368147 (55.1)4491 (46.9)
 Regular5200120 (44.9)5080 (53.1)
  • Data are presented as n (%) for categorical variables, mean (SD) for continuous variables. For variables about eating habits, two categories for frequency of consumption were provided, that is, occasional (<3 times/week) and regular (at least three times/week).

  • *P values refer to comparison between gastric cancer and non-gastric cancer groups in the univariate analysis.

  • †For variables not significant (p>0.05) in the logistic regression model, multivariable data are not shown.

  • ‡Body mass index: weight (kg)/height (m)2.

  • §Red meat includes beef, pork and lamb. White meat includes fish, chicken and duck.

  • EIU, enzyme-immunoassay unit; G-17, gastrin-17; H. pylori, Helicobacter pylori; PG, pepsinogen.