Table 3

Baseline characteristics of the validation Twin and Family Cohort

CharacteristicsOverall (n=142)No advanced fibrosis
MRE<3.63 kPa
(n=131)
Advanced fibrosis
MRE≥3.63 kPa
(n=11)
P value
Demographics
 Age, years44.9 (19.4)43.5 (19.3)61.4 (11.6) 0.008
 Male, n (%)40 (28.1)33 (25.2)7 (63.6) 0.012
 Race
 White, n (%)113 (72.5)98 (74.8)5 (45.5)0.071
 Hispanic, n (%)24 (16.9)20 (15.3)4 (36.4)0.091
 BMI (kg/m2)26.6 (6.2)26.1 (6.0)33.7 (5.3) <0.001
Clinical
 Type 2 diabetes, n (%)8 (5.6%)6 (4.6)2 (18.1)0.118
Biological data
 Glucose (mg/dL)92.2 (17.2)90.7 (15.5)110.6 (25.0) 0.026
 Insulin (U/L)12.1 (22.8)9.2 (7.0)45.8 (72.2) <0.001
 HbA1c5.8 (0.5)5.7 (0.5)6.4 (0.7) <0.001
 HOMA-IR2.9 (6.1)2.1 (1.9)12.2 (19.1)0.113
 AST (U/L)23.9 (10.2)23.0 (8.7)34.6 (18.6) 0.009
 ALT (U/L23.0 (15.4)21.6 (13.5)39.1 (25.5) 0.001
 Alkaline phosphatase (U/L)70.3 (23.2)69.7 (22.2)77.6 (33.5)0.280
 Total bilirubin (mg/dL)0.45 (0.22)0.44 (0.21)0.55 (0.25)0.101
 Direct bilirubin (mg/dL)0.12 (0.04)0.11 (0.03)0.14 (0.05) 0.005
 Albumin (g/dL)4.55 (0.32)4.6 (0.3)4.5 (0.3)0.433
 GGT (U/L)25.6 (30.2)20.2 (10.6)88.4 (81.2) <0.001
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL)188.5 (41.3)189.0 (41.0)182.1 (45.9)0.594
 HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)62.2 (17.3)63.7 (17.0)44.9 (8.1)<0.001
 LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)106.7 (35.8)107.1 (35.6)101.1 (39.3)0.593
 Triglycerides (mg/dL)97.9 (62.0)90.9 (57.1)179.8 (60.6) <0.001
 White blood cell count (× 103/μL)6.0 (1.6)6.0 (1.6)6.3 (1.4)0.587
 Haemoglobin (g/dL)13.8 (2.2)13.6 (1.3)15.6 (6.5)0.503
 Haematocrit (%)40.5 (3.4)40.5 (3.3)39.5 (4.0)0.350
 Platelet count (×103/μL)255.6 (52.6)258.8 (51.3)217.2 (55.1)0.011
 INR1.04 (0.18)1.0 (0.2)1.0 (0.8)0.783
 Ferritin (ng/mL)88.4 (88.6)84.6 (70.5)137.2 (216.4)0.463
Imaging
 MRI-PDFF (%)4.8 (5.5)3.9 (4.1)15.1 (8.9) <0.001
 MRE (kPa)2.4 (0.8)2.2 (0.4)4.7 (1.0) <0.001
Clinical prediction rule
 FIB-40.97 (0.58)0.91 (0.51)1.7 (0.83) 0.001
 NAFLD Fibrosis Score−2.523 (1.401)−2.682 (1.274)−0.455 (1.392) <0.001
  • Mean values are provided with the SD in parenthesis, unless otherwise noted as n (%). Differences between individuals with and without advanced fibrosis were evaluated with t tests or the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test for continuous variables and the χ2 or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables. Bold indicates significant p values≤0.05.

  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; BMI, body mass index; GGT, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase; HOMA-IR, Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; INR, international normalised ratio; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; MRI-PDFF, MRI protein density fat fraction; MRE, MRI elastography.