Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the derivation biopsy-proven NAFLD cohort

CharacteristicsAll (n=156)No advanced
fibrosis (stage 0–2)
(n=133)
Advanced
fibrosis (stage 3–4)
(n=23)
P value*
Demographics
 Age, years49.8±14.348.7±14.156.2±13.9 0.023
 Male, n (%)65 (41.7)59 (44.4)6 (26.1)0.114
 White, n (%)71 (45.5)65 (48.9)6 (26.1)0.058
 Hispanic or Latino, n (%)49 (32.7)36 (27.1)13 (39.4) 0.007
 BMI, kg/m2 32.0±6.031.3±5.035.9±9.5 0.015
Clinical
 Type 2 diabetes, n (%)41 (26.3)32 (24.1)9 (39.1)0.189
Biological data
 AST (U/L)42.2±34.038.7±31.662.3±40.7 0.001
 ALT (U/L)59.0±57.056.8±55.071.7±67.10.574
 Alk P (U/L)77.5±28.374.2±24.696.6±39.4 0.001
 GGT (U/L)55.5±51.050.6±48.384.7±57.5 0.001
 Total bilirubin (mg/dL)1.7±15.30.49±0.240.64±0.660.293
 Direct bilirubin (mg/dL)0.14±0.150.14±0.150.16±0.150.539
 Albumin (g/dL)4.46±0.444.49±0.444.27±0.38 0.019
 Glucose (mg/dL)106.2±33.1104.0±27.0118.7±56.30.607
 Haemoglobin A1c6.0±0.95.97±0.866.48±1.11 0.048
 HOMA-IR8.5±17.38.79±18.516.41±4.960.229
 Insulin (U/mL)34.2±74.935.0±81.130.1±20.90.561
 Triglycerides (mg/dL)159.0±83.5161.5±82.8144.7±87.70.397
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL)182.8±44.3184.7±44.9171.8±40.10.171
 HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)48.7±15.348.7±15.548.3±14.70.888
 LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)105.3±34.6106.8±34.696.8±33.70.212
 Platelet count (103/µL)244.5±782.8255.2±74.6195.4±59.7 0.0001
 INR1.01±0.081.00±0.081.07±0.10 0.009
 Ferritin (ng/mL)190.4±171.9200.4±180.9135.3±95.80.201
Clinical prediction rule
 FIB-41.35±1.241.13±0.872.65±1.97 <0.001
 NAFLD Fibrosis Score−1.85±1.62−2.160±1.437−0.032±1.755 <0.001
Histology
 Fibrosis, n (%) <0.001
 066 (42.3)66 (49.6)0 (0.0)
 151 (32.7)51 (38.3)0 (0.0)
 216 (10.3)16 (12.0)0 (0.0)
 313 (8.3)0 (0.0)13 (56.5)
 410 (6.4)0 (0.0)10 (43.5)
 Steatosis, n (%)0.176
 03 (1.9)3 (2.2)0 (0)
 151 (32.7)39 (29.3)12 (52.2)
 258 (37.2)52 (39.1)6 (26.1)
 344 (28.2)39 (29.3)5 (21.7)
 Lobular inflammation, n (%)0.372
 03 (1.9)3 (2.2)0 (0.0)
 176 (49.0)68 (51.5)8 (34.8)
 270 (45.2)56 (42.1)14 (60.9)
 36 (3.9)5 (3.8)1 (4.3)
 Ballooning, n (%) <0.001
 038 (24.4)34 (25.6)4 (17.4)
 187 (55.8)82 (61.6)5 (21.7)
 230 (19.2)16 (12.0)14 (60.9)
 31 (0.6)1 (0.8)0 (0.0)
 NASH, n (%) 0.012
 NAFLD, no NASH20 (13.0)20 (15.0)0 (0.0)
 Borderline NASH18 (11.7)18 (13.5)0 (0.0)
 Definite NASH116 (75.3)93 (69.9)23 (100.0)
 NAS, median (IQR)4 (2)4 (2)5 (2)0.602
  • Mean values are provided ±SD, unless otherwise noted as n (%) or median and IQR.

  • *P value determined by comparing characteristics of individuals with advanced fibrosis (fibrosis stage 3–4) and without advanced fibrosis (fibrosis stage 0–2) were evaluated using an independent samples t-test or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test, when appropriate, was used to compare categorical variables. Bold indicates significant p values <0.05.

  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase; Alk P, alkaline phosphatase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; BMI, body mass index; GGT, gamma-glutamyl transferase; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HOMA, Homeostasis Model Assessment; INR, international normalised ratio; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; NAS, NAFLD Activity Score.