Table 1

Patient cohort clinical characteristics

ParametersAll subjects
(n=105)
Non-IPMN*
(n=21)
IPMN
(n=57)
Cancer
(n=27)
Gender (F:M)59:46 20:1†‡ 29:28† 10:17‡
Age (years) median (range)69 (30–84) 47†‡ (30–77) 71† (47–84) 71‡ (46–83)
BMI (kg/m2) median (range)25.2 (18.1–40.4)26.4 (20.4–37.1)26.4 (18.1–40.4)24.5 (20.2–30.2)
Smoking (%)12.223.57.315.4
Alcohol (%)34.829.432.742.3
Diabetes (%)19.19.517.529.6
Proton-pump inhibitor use (%)14.314.315.811.1
Preoperative diagnostic accuracy (%)n.a. 52.4† 94.7† 51.9
S-Ca 19–9 (kE/L) median (range)
Above normal§ (%)
12.0 (<1.0–4840)
33.3
9.9‡ (<1.0–62)
23.8‡
11.0 (<1.0–115)
19.3
94.0‡ (<1.0–4840)
70.4‡
Haemoglobin A1c (mmol/mol) median (range)40.0 (15.1–80) 35.0‡ (30–80) 40.0 (28–72) 42.0‡ (15.1–67)
Amylase (µkat/L) median (range)0.37 (<0.13–11.6)0.38 (0.19–1.96)0.39 (<0.13–4.18)0.27 (<0.13–11.6)
Albumin (g/L) median (range)36 (16–42) 38‡ (33–42) 37 (16–42) 33.5‡ (19–38)
Bilirubin (μmol/L) median (range)6 (<3–315) 5‡ (<3–18) 6 (<3–315) 14‡ (4–277)
C reactive protein (mg/L) median (range)2 (1–130)2 (1–13)1 (1–49)4 (1–130)
Invasive endoscopic procedure (%) mean frequency (range)38.1
0.62 (0–7)
14.3‡
0.14 (0–1)‡
29.8
0.51 (0–7)
74.1‡
1.2 (0–4)‡
Unicystic/multicystic (%)52.0/48.080.0/20.036.8/63.264.0/26.0
  • Pairwise comparisons between the diagnosis groups were made using Fisher’s exact test (qualitative parameters) and Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s multiple comparisons correction (quantitative variables).

  • Bold indicates statistical significance (p <0.05) in pairwise comparison.

  • *Non-IPMN group comprises MCN (n=9) and SCN (n=12).

  • †Indicates ‘non-IPMN cyst’ vs ‘IPMN’ p<0.05 (two-tailed).

  • ‡Indicates ‘non-IPMN cyst’ vs ‘Cancer’ p<0.05 (two-tailed).

  • §Normal S-Ca 19–9<34 kE/L.

  • n.a., not applicable.