Table 1

Study population’s characteristics

GroupsAll PSCPSC_onlyPSC_IBDIBD_onlyHealthyP value
(n=49)(n=22)(n=27)(n=33)(n=30)Four groupsPSC_only
versus
PSC_IBD
PSC_IBD
versus
IBD_only
All PSC
versus
healthy
IBD_only
versus
healthy
Age (years)*41 (21–68)45 (21–68)40 (23–57)36 (19–68)31 (22–62)0.07880.16800.2113 0.0390 0.4777
Gender male†34 (69.4)12 (54.5)22 (81.5)17 (51.5)9 (34.6) 0.0016 0.0625 0.0284 0.0010 0.1242
BMI (kg/m2)*22.4 (15.8–32.0)22.4 (15.8–31.7)22.2 (17.5–32.0)23.7 (16.8–36.7)21.9 (17.0–26.7)0.24280.87730.39770.16250.0534
Smoking†1 (2.0)1 (4.5)03 (9.1)2 (6.7)0.46350.44900.24490.55391.0
Small-duct PSC†3 (6.1)2 (9.1)1 (3.7)0.5809
Overlap syndrome†4 (8.2)4 (18.2)0 0.0345
UC†12 (24.5)12 (44.4)14 (42.4)0.9875
Crohn’s disease†11 (22.4)11 (40.7)14 (42.4)
Unclassified colitis†4 (8.2)4 (14.8)5 (15.2)
Liver stiffness (kPa)*7.6 (3.8–75)9.6 (3.8–75)7.4 (5–29.5)0.2357
Cirrhosis†6 (12.2)5 (22.7)1 (3.70)0.0773
Mayo risk score*−0.48 (−1.63 to 1.95)−0.57 (−1.63 to 1.95)−0.32 (−1.35 to 1.32)0.5888
PSC duration (years)*6 (0–40)7.5 (0–40)6 (0–24)0.2852
IBD duration (years)*10 (0–45)10 (0–45)8 (0–36)0.7200
UDCA treatment†46 (93.9)22 (100.0)24 (88.9)0.2423
5-ASA treatment†22 (44.9)1 (4.5)21 (77.8)26 (78.8)0.9247
Fibrates treatment†2 (4.1)2 (9.1)00.1964
PPI treatment†1 (2.0)01 (3.7)01 (3.3)1.0001.000
Vitamin D treatment†10 (20.4)5 (22.7)5 (18.5)0.7365
Steroid treatment†4 (8.2)1 (4.5)3 (11.1)2 (6.1)0.4813
ALT (xULN)*0.9 (0.1–7.4)0.9 (0.2–6.8)0.9 (0.1–7.4)0.7632
AST (xULN)*0.9 (0.5–5.7)0.9 (0.52–5.7)0.9 (0.5–5.5)0.9606
ALP (xULN)*1.1 (0.3–6.4)0.9 (0.5–2.7)1.2 (0.3–6.4)0.3536
GGT (xULN)*1.6 (0.3–16.8)1.3 (0.3–4.9)2.0 (0.3–16.8)0.4192
Bilirubin (mg/dL)*0.9 (0.4–4.0)0.9 (0.5–4)0.9 (0.4–3.1)0.5892
Albumin (g/dL)*4.3 (3.2–4.9)4.4 (3.2–4.9)4.2 (3.6–4.6)0.1272
Acute cholangitis†9 (18.4)4 (18.2)5 (18.5)1.0000
Bile duct dilatation or stent†8 (16.3)3 (13.6)5 (18.5)0.7153
Cholecystectomy†9 (18.4)6 (27.3)3 (11.1)0.2657
Ankylosing spondylitis†2 (4.1)1 (4.5)1 (3.7)2 (6.1)01.0001.000
Montreal classification
  L1/L2/L3 (n)1/5/51/5/51/8/50.8449
  E1/E2/E3 (n)0/1/150/1/151/10/8 0.0058
  • *Median (minimum–maximum).

  • †n (%).

  • Significant p values  are in bold.

  • 5-ASA, 5-aminosalicylic acid; ALP, alkaline phosphatase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; BMI, body mass index; GGT, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase; PPI, proton pump inhibitor; PSC, primary sclerosing cholangitis; UDCA, ursodeoxycholic acid; ULN, upper limit of normal.