Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of study participants

CharacteristicsMother with IBDControl motherP value
Mean age at recruitment (year, mean±SD)32.9±432.9±3.70.35
Jewish ethnicity (%)3513.8 0.008
Nulliparous (%)62.540.7 0.024
Exposure to antibiotics during pregnancy (%)20.524.10.67
Peripartum antibiotics (%)65.552.10.25
Use of assisted reproductive technology (%)9.913.20.59
Gestational diabetes/type 1 DM (%)
Biologic drugs during pregnancy (%)50
Thiopurines during pregnancy (%)28
Prior surgery (%)16
Disease remission during pregnancy (%)70
CharacteristicsInfants born to mothers with IBDInfants born to control mothersP value
Male gender (%)69.239.6 0.013
Mean gestational age at delivery (weeks, mean±SD)39.5±1.0839.3±1.670.36
Delivered by C-section (%)
Preterm birth (%)
Birth weight (kg, mean±SD)3.41±0.383.29±0.520.82
Low birth weight (%)03.80.31
Exclusive breast feeding (%)5039.60.073
Exclusive formula (%)15.43.7
Mixed feeding (%)34.656.6
Exposure to antibiotics after birth (%)
Exposure to probiotics after birth (%)11.513.20.83