Table 2

Differences in the effects of 4-week intervention with milk PL in cream cheese on fasting circulating metabolic risk markers in the VALOBAB-C trial

Control (n=19)3 g-PL (n=19)5 g-PL (n=20)pgroup
V1ΔV2−V1V1ΔV2−V1V1ΔV2−V1
Body weight (kg)77.86±2.360.03±0.1974.67±1.760.01±0.2275.22±1.16−0.33±0.250.43
Fat body mass (%)43.85±1.030.03±0.3743.43±0.780.30±0.5542.48±0.79−0.3±0.210.56
Lean body mass (%)56.15±1.03−0.03±0.3756.57±0.78−0.30±0.5557.52±0.790.3±0.210.56
BMI (kg/m²)30.22±0.760.01±0.0729.05±0.58−0.02±0.0929.18±0.56−0.12±0.10.53
Systolic BP (mm Hg)124.32±2.74−4.79±2.28124.68±4.17−1.63±2.00124.47±3.94−4.21±2.880.62
Diastolic BP (mm Hg)71.68±2.280.84±1.6976.21±2.07−1.84±1.8775.84±1.94−2.89±1.240.25
Total C (mmol/L)5.59±0.17−0.04±0.1a 5.58±0.20−0.21±0.10a,b 5.68±0.24−0.4±0.09b 0.04
LDL-C (mmol/L)3.70±0.15−0.04±0.08a 3.54±0.17−0.17±0.08a,b 3.63±0.19−0.34±0.08b 0.04
HDL-C (mmol/L)1.16±0.05−0.02±0.03a,b 1.23±0.05−0.04±0.03a 1.17±0.060.06±0.02b 0.03
Total C/HDL-C ratio5.01±0.270.11±0.16a 4.67±0.26−0.01±0.12a 5.16±0.36−0.63±0.13b 0.0005†
TAG (mmol/L)1.24±0.080.11±0.06a 1.24±0.11−0.01±0.09a 1.47±0.13−0.30±0.10b 0.003†
PCSK9 (ng/mL)271.30±27.1012.30±13.50276.00±25.00−28.30±17.30259.20±18.40−16.60±10.500.12
ApoA1 (g/L)‡1.16±0.02−0.01±0.021.17±0.020.00±0.021.19±0.03−0.01±0.020.86
ApoB (g/L)†1.03±0.050.01±0.02a 1.01±0.05−0.04±0.02a,b 1.02±0.06−0.09±0.03b 0.03
ApoB48 (10−3 g/L)‡6.98±0.770.41±0.36a 5.70±0.53−0.13±0.39a 7.01±0.62−2.04±0.50b 0.0004†
ApoB/ApoA1‡0.89±0.040.01±0.02a 0.86±0.04−0.04±0.02a,b 0.87±0.05−0.07±0.02b 0.02
ApoB48/ApoB‡6.75±0.480.38±0.45a 5.79±0.530.14±0.47a 7.48±0.70−1.64±0.45b 0.005†
Glucose (mmol/L)5.23±0.10−0.03±0.075.11±0.110.02±0.065.15±0.1−0.11±0.060.37
Insulin (mIU/L)7.29±0.990.43±0.727.11±0.72−0.06±0.618.07±1.36−0.41±0.900.74
HOMA-IR1.74±0.260.17±0.181.67±0.19−0.03±0.141.82±0.28−0.10±0.180.52
  • P values presented in bold highlight significant intervention effect.

  • Data are presented as mean±SEM. pgroup represents p value associated with group effect as calculated by generalised linear model.

  • a b Different superscript letters indicate statistically different intervention effects between groups as calculated by post hoc analyses controlling for familywise type I error (i.e., means sharing a common letter are not significantly different).

  • †P value remains significant (<0.05) after adjustment for clinical centre, quartiles of volunteer age and waist circumference; the other significant p values only describe a tendency after adjustment (p<0.1).

  • ‡Control n=17, 3 g-PL n=17 and 5 g-PL n=18 due to missing values.

  • Apo, apolipoprotein; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; C, cholesterol; CRP, C reactive protein; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HOMA-IR, homeostasic model assessment of insulin resistance; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; PCSK9: proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9; PL, polar lipids; TAG, triacylglycerol; V1, visit 1; V2, visit 2.