Table 3

Risk of developing dementia among patients with IBD and controls, based on disease severity from medication and surgical history

Dementia case (n, %)Stratified Cox-regression modelStratified competing risk regression model
Crude HR (95% CI)Adjusted HR (95% CI)*Crude HR (95% CI)Adjusted HR (95% CI)*
Control group250 (1.4)1 (ref)1 (ref)1 (ref)1 (ref)
IBD group
 Mild69 (5.2)4.54 (3.41 to 6.05)2.70 (1.94 to 3.76)4.62 (3.47 to 6.17)2.73 (1.95 to 3.80)
 Moderate–severe18 (6.3)4.58 (2.62 to 8.03)2.07 (1.04 to 4.11)4.56 (2.60 to 7.99)2.06 (1.04 to 4.10)
 Surgery8 (6.1)2.82 (1.28 to 6.22)2.33 (0.96 to 5.66)2.85 (1.29 to 6.30)2.31 (0.95 to 5.63)
  • Bold type indicates the statistical significance.

  • *Adjusted by age, Charlson Comorbidity Index score and all-cause clinical visits.

  • CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard ratio; IBD, inflammatory bowel disease; Mild, aminosalicylates, sulfasalazine and/or topical steroids; Moderate–severe, systemic corticosteroids, immunomodulators, and/or biologics therapy.