Table 1

Clinical characteristics of NAFLD patients

CharacteristicsAllTraining cohortValidation cohort
N344206138
Age (years)51±1250±1252±12
Male sex, n (%)199 (57.8)128 (62.1)71 (51.4)
Diabetes, n (%)205 (59.6)121 (58.7)84 (60.9)
Hypertension, n (%)189 (54.9)109 (52.9)80 (58.0)
Waist circumference (cm)96±1397±1394±13
Men98±1299±1197±12
Women92±1492±1492±14
Body mass index (kg/m2)28.6±4.728.8±4.828.4±4.7
Alanine aminotransferase (IU/L)59 (37–93)63 (39–92)53 (34–95)
Aspartate aminotransferase (IU/L)33 (24–54)34 (24–54)33 (24–53)
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)6.7±2.16.7±2.06.7±2.2
Haemoglobin A1c (%)6.7±1.36.7±1.36.7±1.3
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.8±1.14.8±1.14.8±1.0
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)1.4±0.71.4±0.81.4±0.6
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)2.8±0.92.7±0.92.8±0.9
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.5 (1.1–2.2)1.6 (1.1–2.2)1.4 (1.0–2.0)
Liver stiffness measurement (kPa)*7.6 (5.9–11.8)7.9 (5.8–12.0)7.3 (6.0–10.8)
Liver histology, n (%)
 Steatosis grade
  1125 (36.3)72 (35.0)53 (38.4)
  2135 (39.2)81 (39.3)54 (39.1)
  384 (24.4)53 (25.7)31 (22.5)
 Lobular inflammation
  059 (17.2)32 (15.5)27 (19.6)
  1185 (53.8)114 (55.3)71 (51.4)
  298 (28.5)58 (28.2)40 (29.0)
  32 (0.6)2 (1.0)0 (0)
 Hepatocyte ballooning
  0139 (40.4)86 (41.7)53 (38.4)
  1184 (53.5)104 (50.5)80 (58.0)
  221 (6.1)16 (7.8)5 (3.6)
 Fibrosis stage
  082 (23.8)51 (24.8)31 (22.5)
  1114 (33.1)67 (32.5)47 (34.1)
  244 (12.8)26 (12.6)18 (13.0)
  345 (13.1)29 (14.1)16 (11.6)
  459 (17.2)33 (16.0)26 (18.8)
  • Continuous variables were expressed as mean±SD or median (IQR) as appropriate.

  • *Based on available and reliable liver stiffness measurement in 240 patients using transient elastography. The M probe was used in patients with body mass index <30 kg/m2, and XL probe was used in patients with body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 or unreliable M probe examination.

  • HDL, high density lipoprotein; LDL, low density lipoprotein; NAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.