Table 1

Effect of common drugs on the microbiome in population studies

Name (analogue UK)NL%
n=1124
UK%
n=2737
Effect on alpha divEffect on beta-div/prop. of core generaDecreased taxaIncreased taxa
ACE inhibitors3.9111.7s_Dorea_longicatena (1)g_Rothia (1); g_Blautia (1)
Alpha blockers0.892.73f_Lactobacillaceae (1); g_Lactobacillus (1); f_Veillonellaceae (1); g_Dialister (1)
Angiotensin-II-receptor antagonists (Sartan)2.946.84Yes (2)
Antibiotics
(previous month antibiotics)
1.166.450.45*Yes (1, 2, 3, 4)f_Bifidobacteriaceae (1); g_Bifidobacterium (1); s_Bifidobacterium_longum (1); s_Bifidobacterium_adolescentis (1); f_Prevotellaceae (3); f_Peptococcaceae (3); f_Odoribacteraceae (3); f_Clostridiaceae (3); f_Alcaligenaceae (3); f_Anaeroplasmataceae (3); g_unclassified_Lachnospiraceae (4)f_Enterococcaceae (3); g_Bacteroides (4); g_Oscillibacter (4); g_unclassified_Ruminococcaceae (4)
Antihistamines (H1 inhibitor)6.144.93Yes (4)f_Dehalobacteriaceae (3); f_Christensenellaceae (3)s_Clostridium_bolteae (1)
Beta blockers5.437.42Yes (1 to 2)0f_Streptococcaceae (1); g_Streptococcus (1); s_Streptococcus_mutans (1); g_Rothia (1)
Calcium1.2515.7Yes (1,2)f_Gemellaceae (3)
Laxatives1.873.19Yes (1, 2, 4)g_Collinsella (1); s_Collinsella_aerofaciens (1); f_Lachnospiraceae (1); s_Ruminococcus_obeum (1); g_Coprococcus (1); s_Coprococcus_catus (1); s_Coprococcus_comes (1); g_Dorea (1); g_Faecalibacterium (4)s_Bifidobacterium_pseudocatenulatum (1); g_Bacteroides (1); s_Bacteroides_stercoris (1); s_Bacteroidales_bacterium_ph8 (1); f_Enterobacteriaceae (1); g_Escherichia (1); g_unclassified_Rhodospirillaceae (4); g_Bacteroides (4); g_Oscillibacter (4); g_Barnesiella (4)
Metformin1.332.90.9*Yes (1, 2, 3)s_Bacteroides_dorei (1); g_Coprococcus (1); s_Coprococcus_comes (1); g_Dorea (1); s_Dorea_longicatena (1); f_Clostridiaceae (3); f_Ruminococcaceae (3); f_Barnesiellaceae (3); f_Christensenellaceae (3)f_Streptococcaceae (1); g_Streptococcus (1); f_Enterobacteriaceae (1,3); g_Escherichia (1); s_Escherichia_coli (1)
Opiates (opioid)1.168.58Yes (3)f_Dehalobacteriaceae (3);f_Streptococcaceae (3); f_Micrococcaceae (3); f_Lactobacillaceae (3); f_Eubacteriaceae (3)
Oral contraceptives10.12.61Yes (2 to 4)g_Rothia (1)
Paracetamol0.9810.60.6*Yes (3)f_Lachnospiraceae (1); g_Dorea (1); f_Christensenellaceae (3); f_Dehalobacteriaceae (3); f_Oxalobacteraceae (3)s_Bifidobacterium_dentium (1); s_Streptococcus_salivarius (1); f_Streptococcaceae (3); f_Peptostreptococcaceae (3); f_Eubacteriaceae (3); f_Micrococcaceae (3);
Platelet aggregation inhibitors (aspirin)2.857.83Yes (1 to 2)f_Bifidobacteriaceae (1); g_Bifidobacterium (1); s_Bifidobacterium_adolescentis (1)g_Rothia (1); s_Bifidobacterium_dentium (1); s_Bacteroides_ovatus (1); f_Streptococcaceae (1); g_Streptococcus (1); s_Streptococcus_mutans (1); s_Streptococcus_parasanguinis (1); s_Streptococcus_sanguinis (1); s_Clostridium_bolteae (1); g_Blautia (1); s_Lachnospiraceae_bacterium_3_1_57FAA_CT1 (1); s_Lachnospiraceae_bacterium_7_1_58FAA (1); f_Eubacteriaceae (3)
Proton pump inhibitors8.2718.78.7*Yes (1, 2, 3, 4)s_Eubacterium_hallii (1); s_Eubacterium_ventriosum (1); s_Coprococcus_catus (1); g_Dorea (1); s_Dorea_longicatena (1); f_Ruminococcaceae (1, 3); f_Alcaligenaceae (3); f_Peptococcaceae (3); f_Dehalobacteriaceae (3); f_Coriobacteriaceae (3)f_Actinomycetaceae (1, 3); g_Actinomyces (1); s_Bifidobacterium_dentium (1); f_Lactobacillaceae (1, 3); g_Lactobacillus (1); f_Streptococcaceae (1, 3); g_Streptococcus (1); s_Streptococcus_anginosus (1); s_Streptococcus_mutans (1); s_Streptococcus_parasanguinis (1); s_Streptococcus_sanguinis (1); s_Streptococcus_salivarius (1); s_Clostridium_bolteae (1); g_Erysipelotrichaceae_noname (1); g_Veillonella (1); s_Veillonella_parvula (1); s_Veillonella_unclassified (1); f_Pasteurellaceae (1, 3); g_Haemophilus (1); s_Haemophilus_parainfluenzae (1); f_Micrococcaceae (3); f_Gemellaceae (3); f_Enterococcaceae (3); f_Fusobacteriaceae (3); f_Enterobacteriaceae (3)
SSRI antidepressants2.496.55Yes (1, 2, 3)f_Turicibacteraceae (3); f_Clostridiaceae (3); f_Bifidobacteriaceae (3); f_Peptostreptococcaceae (3); f_.Paraprevotellaceae (3); f_Coriobacteriaceae (3)
Statins4.8925.7Yes (1, 2, 3)s_Methanobrevibacter_unclassified (1); g_Coprococcus (1); s_Coprococcus_comes (1); g_Dorea (1); s_Dorea_longicatena (1); f_Peptostreptococcaceae (1); g_Peptostreptococcaceae_noname (1); s_Peptostreptococcaceae_noname_unclassified (1); s_Faecalibacterium_prausnitzi (1)g_Rothia (1); f_Streptococcaceae (1); g_Streptococcus (1); s_Clostridium_bolteae (1); g_Blautia (1); s_Lachnospiraceae_bacterium_2_1_58FAA (1); s_Lachnospiraceae_bacterium_3_1_57FAA_CT1 (1); s_Coprobacillus_unclassified (1)
Tricyclic antidepressants0.893.77Yes (1 to 2)f_Bifidobacteriaceae (1); g_Bifidobacterium (1); f_Streptococcaceae (3); f_Enterobacteriaceae (3); f_Lactobacillaceae (3)
Vitamin D (cholecalciferol)1.2516.5Yes (1 to 2)s_Streptococcus_salivarius (1)
  • Data extracted from four population studies in three populations: Dutch: (1) Vich Vila et al, Nat.Communications, 2019,19 and (2) Zhernakova et al, Science, 2016;16 UK: (3) Jackson et al, Nat. Communications, 201818 and Belgium: (4) Falony et al, Science, 2016.15 The table includes drugs used by >2.5% of population in either a Dutch (1) or UK (3) study that showed association to the gut microbiome diversity, composition or taxa. As both Dutch studies (1 and 2) have largely overlapping samples, we only present the taxonomic association results from Vich Vila, which were generated using the more recent MetaPhlAn pipeline and included association on all taxonomic levels.

  • Name (analog UK): Name of the drug in the Dutch study (1). In brackets, the name of the drug in UK study (3) if another group name is used.

  • %NL and %UK: Proportion of drug users in the corresponding populations.

  • Effect on alpha div: Evidence that the drug has an effect on alpha diversity of gut microbiome, * decrease.

  • Effect on beta-div/prop. of core genera: Evidence that the drug has an effect on beta-diversity or the proportion of core genera (proportion of core genera is only addressed in study 4).

  • Decreased taxa: Bacterial taxa negatively associated with drug use.

  • Increased taxa: Bacterial taxa positively associated with drug use.

  • SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.